The Fundamental Duties
These are defined as the moral obligations of all citizens to help promote a spirit of patriotism and to uphold the unity of India and concern the individuals and the nation. Included in Part IVA of the Constitution, like the Directive Principles, they are not enforceable by the law. According to the constitution, following are the duties to be followed by every citizen of India
- To abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem.
- To cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom.
- To uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity, and integrity of India.
- To defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so.
- To promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women.
- To value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture.
- To protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers, wildlife and to have compassion for living creatures.
- To develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform.
- To safeguard public property and to abjure violence.
- To strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity, so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavor and achievement.
- Who is a parent or guardian, to provide opportunities for education to his child, or as the case may be, ward between the age of six to fourteen years.
- According to the 86th constitutional amendment in 2002, it is the duty of the people of India to adapt to make India a safer place to live, to be clean and make the surrounding clean and not to hurt anybody physically and mentally.
The Relationship Between the Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles and Fundamental Duties
Directive Principles have been used to uphold the Constitutional validity of legislation in case of conflict with Fundamental Rights. According to the amendment of 1971, any law that even though it deviates from the Fundamental Rights, but has been made to give effect to the Directive Principles in Article 39(b)(c) would not be deemed invalid. The Fundamental Duties will be held obligatory for all citizens subject to the State enforcing the same by means of a valid law.