India is located entirely in the northern hemisphere; specifically in the south-central part of the continent of Asia.
The mainland of India extends between latitudes 80.4’N and 37.06’N and longitudes 68.07’E and 97025’E (as shown in the map given below). The southern boundary extends up to 6°45' N latitude in the Bay of Bengal.
With an area of 3.28 million square km, India is the 7th largest country of the world.
The six largest countries of the world in decreasing order are Russia, Canada, USA, China, Brazil, and Australia.
India accounts for about 2.4 percent of the total geographical area of the world.
India has a total land boundary of about 15,200 km. The coastline of India stretches along the Bay of Bengal in the east and the Arabian Sea in the west.
From Gujarat (westernmost) to Arunachal Pradesh (easternmost), there is about 300 difference; hence, because of this difference, there is a time difference of two hours between Gujarat and Arunachal Pradesh.
The sun rises in Arunachal Pradesh about two hours earlier as compared to Jaisalmer in Rajasthan.
The maximum length of the mainland from north to south is about 3214 km. The maximum length of the mainland from east to west is about 2933 km.
India’s total length of coastline is 6,100 km of its mainland and after including Andaman and Nicobar, and Lakshadweep islands, it is about 7,516 km.
India’s territorial limit further extends towards the sea up to 12 nautical miles (i.e. about 21.9 km) from the coast.
82°30’E Meridian crossing through the Mirzapur city of Uttar Pradesh is taken as India’s Standard Meridian.
Indian Standard Time is ahead of Greenwich (00 or Prime Meridian) Mean Time by 5 hours and 30 minutes.
Tropic of cancer (23030’N) passes through Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Tripura, and Mizoram. The difference in latitudinal extent influences the duration of day and night.India & Neighbours India has total 28 States, 8 Union Territories, and 1 National Capital Territory.
India is bounded by young fold mountains (the Great Himalaya) in the North and North-East.
Throughout the history, India’s connections with other parts of the world has been heavily influenced by waterways and also the mountain passes.
India shares its international boundaries with Afghanistan and Pakistan in the North-West; China, Tibet (China), Nepal, and Bhutan in the North and North-East; and Myanmar and Bangladesh in the East. Island countries Sri Lanka and Maldives are India’s neighbors across the sea.
Sri Lanka is an island nation located off the southern coast of India in South Asia and it is bordered by the Indian Ocean. India and Sri Lanka are separated by a thin water body called the Palk Strait.
Based on geological history, India is divided into three regions.
The regions are:
The Peninsular Block;
The Himalayas & other Peninsular Mountains; and
The Peninsular Block is formed essentially by a great complex of very ancient gneisses and granites.
The Peninsular Block mostly consists of relicts and residual mountains like the Aravali hills, the Nallamala hills, the Javadi hills, the Veliconda hills, the Palkondarange, the Mahendragiri hills, etc.
Unlike the rigid and stable Peninsular Block, the Himalayan Mountains are young, weak, and flexible in their geological structure.
Indo-Ganga-Brahmaputra Plain comprises the plains formed by the river Indus, the Ganga, and the Brahmaputra.
In fact, Indo-Ganga-Brahmaputra Plain is a geo-synclinal depression, which attained its maximum development during the third phase of the Himalayan mountain formation, approximately about 64 million years ago.
India’s physiography is divided into six following regions: o The Northern and Northeastern Mountains
The Northern Plain
The Peninsular Plateau
The Indian Desert
The Coastal Plains
The Northern and the Northeastern Mountains consist of the Himalayas and the Northeastern hills. The Himalayan Ranges include the Greater Himalaya, Lesser/Middle Himalaya, and the Siwalik Range. Based on relief, alignment of ranges and other geomorphological features, the Himalayas can be divided into the following sub-divisions:
Kashmir or Northwestern Himalayas
Himachal and Uttaranchal Himalayas
Darjeeling and Sikkim Himalayas
Eastern Hills and Mountains.
Kashmir or Northwestern Himalayas consist of a series of ranges such as the Karakoram, Ladakh, Zanskar, and Pir Panjal. Important glaciers of South Asia, i.e., the Baltoro and Siachen are found in the Northwestern Himalayan region.
The Kashmir Himalayas are also popular for the Karewa formations, which are useful for the cultivation of Zafran, a local variety of saffron.
Karewas are the thick deposits of glacial clay and other materials embedded with moraines.
Important passes of the Northwestern Himalayas are Zoji La on the Great Himalayas, Banihal on the Pir Panjal, and Khardung La on the Ladakh range.
Important fresh lakes are Dal and Wular and salt water lakes are Pangong Tso and Tso Moriri. The southernmost part of the Northwestern Himalayas consists of longitudinal valleys locally known as duns.
The Himachal and Uttarakhand Himalayas are located approximately between the rivers Ravi in the west and the Kali (a tributary of Ghaghara) in the east.
The Darjeeling and Sikkim Himalayas are flanked by the Nepal Himalayas in the west and the Bhutan Himalayas in the east.
The Arunachal Himalayas extend from the east of the Bhutan Himalayas up to the Diphu pass in the east.
Some of the prominent tribes of Arunachal Himalayas from west to east are the Monpa, Abor, Mishmi, Nyishi, and the Nagas.
Located in the northeast India, the Eastern Hills i.e. parts of the Himalayan mountains are known by different local names. They are known as Patkai Bum, Naga hills, the Manipur hills in the North, and Mizo or Lushai hills in the South.
The northern plains are formed by the alluvial deposits brought by the rivers – the Indus, the Ganga, and the Brahmaputra. The northern plains are divided into three major zones: the Bhabar, the Tarai, and the alluvial plains.
Bhabar is a narrow belt spread between 8-10 km parallel to the Shiwalik foothills at the break-up of the slope where all the rivers coming through this way deposit heavy materials of rocks and boulders and get disappeared.
These streams again re-emerge in Tarai region. The south of Tarai is a belt consisting of old and new alluvial deposits known as the Bhangar and Khadar accordingly. The alluvial plains are further divided as the Khadar and the Bhangar.
The Peninsular Block is made up of a series of patland plateaus such as the Hazaribagh plateau, the Palamu plateau, the Ranchi plateau, the Malwa plateau, the Coimbatore plateau, and the Karnataka plateau.
Delhi ridge in the northwest, (extension of Aravalli’s), the Rajmahal hills in the east, Gir range in the west and the Cardamom hills in the south are the peripheral parts of the Peninsular Block.
The Peninsular plateau can be further divided into three broad groups i.e. the Deccan Plateau, the Central Highlands, and the Northeastern Plateau.
Western Ghats is known by different local names. They are known as Sahyadri in Maharashtra; Nilgiri hills in Karnataka and Tamil Nadu; and Anaimalai hills,and Cardamom hills in Kerala.
Located on the Anaimalai hills of the Western Ghats Anaimudi (2,695 m) is the highest peak of Peninsular plateau, followed by Dodabetta (2,637 m) on the Nilgiri hills. Thal, Bhor, and the Pal Ghats are the important passes of the Western Ghats.
The Eastern Ghats stretch from the Mahanadi Valley in the north to the Nilgiris in the The Eastern Ghats are discontinuous and irregular and dissected by many rivers draining into the Bay of Bengal.
Mahendragiri (1,501 meters) is the highest peak of the Eastern Ghats. The most distinct feature of the peninsular plateau is the black soil area known as Deccan Trap.
Formed by a series of scarped plateaus on the south, the Satpura range is part of the Central Highlands. The general elevation of the Central Highlands ranges between 700 and 1,000 m above the mean sea level.
Rajmahal hills and the Meghalaya plateau are the part of the Northeastern Plateau. The Meghalaya plateau is further sub-divided as the Garo,Khasi,Jyantia Hills is rich in mineral resources. The most significant of these resources are coal, iron ore, sillimanite, limestone, and uranium.
The Great Indian Desert, also known as the Thar Desert, lies in the northwest of the Aravalli hills.
The Indian coastal plains are divided as the western coastal plains and the eastern coastal plains. The western coastal plains are an example of submerged coastal plain.
The western coast may be divided into the following divisions – the Kachchh and Kathiawar coast in Gujarat; Konkan coast in Maharashtra; Goan coast in Karnataka, and the Malabar coast in Kerala respectively.
The Malabar Coast has certain distinctive features such as Kayals (backwaters), which are used for fishing, inland navigation, and these backwaters hold a special attraction for the tourists.
In comparison to the western coastal plains, the eastern coastal plain is broader and is an example of an Emergent coast.
The Eastern Coast is named as the Northern Circar (in the north part i.e. part of West Bengal, Odisha, etc.) and the southern part is known as the Coromandel Coast (part of Southern Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu). The eastern coastal plain is known as the Northern Circars in the region between Krishna and Mahanadi rivers (West Bengal, Odisha, etc.) and as the Coromandel Coast.
There are two major island groups in India, i.e., one in the Bay of Bengal (Andaman and Nicobar) and the other in the Arabian Sea (Lakshadweep). The Bay of Bengal island group consists of about 572 islands/islets.
The two principal groups of islets include the Ritchie’s archipelago and the Labyrinth Islands. However, the entire group of islands is divided into two broad categories – the Andaman in the north and the Nicobar in the south and they are separated by Ten Degree Channel.
Major Himalayan drainage systems are the Indus, the Ganga, and the Brahmaputra rivers.
The total length of the Indus River system is 2,880 km (in India 1,114 km) The Indus, which is also known as the Sindhu, is the westernmost of the Himalayan Rivers in India. The Indus originates from a glacier near Bokhar Chu in the Tibetan region at an altitude of 4,164 m in the Kailash Mountain range.
In Tibet, the Indus is known as Singi Khamban or the Lion’s mouth. The Indus enters into Pakistan near Chillar in the Dardistan region.
The Ganga originates from the Gangotri glacier near Gaumukh (3,900 m) in the Uttarkashi district of Uttarakhand. However, the river, when it originates from the Gangotri glacier is known as the Bhagirathi.
At Devprayag, the Bhagirathi merges with another river, i.e., the Alaknanda; and from here, it is known as the Ganga. The Alaknanda originates from the Satopanth glacier above Badrinath. The major tributaries of the Alaknanda are the Dhauli and the Vishnu Ganga; these two rivers meet at Joshimath/Vishnu Prayag.
Some other tributaries of the Alaknanda are the Pindar (joins at Karna Prayag), the Mandakini or Kali Ganga (joins at Rudra Prayag). The total length of the Ganga in India is 2,525 km, which is shared by Uttarakhand (110 km); Uttar Pradesh (1,450 km); Bihar (445 km); and West Bengal (520 km).
The Ganga river system is the largest river system in India. The Son is a major right bank tributary of the Ganga; however, major left bank tributaries are the Ramganga, the Gomati, the Ghaghara, the Gandak, the Kosi, and the Mahananda.
Originating from the Yamunotri glacier on the western slopes of Banderpunchrange (6,316 km), the Yamuna is the longest tributary of the Ganga. The Yamuna joins the Ganga at Allahabad (Prayag), Uttar Pradesh.
The Chambal, the Sind, the Betwa, and the Kenon are the right bank tributaries of the Yamuna and the Hindan, the Rind, the Sengar, the Varuna, etc. are the left bank tributaries.
The Chambal rises near Mhow in the Malwa plateau of Madhya Pradesh. The Chambal is famous for its badland topography, known as the Chambal ravines.
LOriginating from the Nepal Himalayas between the Dhaulagiri and Mount Everest, the Gandak consists of two streams, namely Kaligandak and Trishulganga. The Gandak joins the Ganga at Sonpur near Patna, Bihar.
The Ghaghara originates from the Mapchachungo glaciers and joins the Ganga at Chhapra, Bihar.The Kosi originates from the north of Mount Everest in Tibet where it is known as the Arun.
Originating from the Garhwal hills near Gairsain, the Ramganga joins the Ganga near Kannauj. The Damodar drains the eastern margins of the Chottanagpur plateau, where it flows through a rift valley and finally joins the Hugli.
The Barakar is the main tributary of the Damodar. The Sarda or Saryu River rises from the Milam glacier in the Nepal Himalayas where it is known as the Goriganga. However, along the Indo-Nepal border, it is called as Kali or Chauk, where it joins the Ghaghara.
Originating from the Darjeeling hills, the Mahananda joins the Ganga as its last left bank tributary in West Bengal. Originating from the Amarkantak plateau, the Son is a large south bank tributary of the Ganga; it joins the Ganga at Arrah, Bihar.
The Brahmaputra originates from Mansrover as the Tsangpo (means ‘the purifier’). The Rango Tsangpo is the major right bank tributary of the Brahmaputra in Tibet.
The Brahmaputra enters into India near the west of Sadiya town in Arunachal Pradesh. Major left bank tributaries of the Brahmaputra are Lohit, Dibang or Sikang, BurhiDihing, and Dhansari.
Major right bank tributaries of the Brahmaputra are the Subansiri, Kameng, Manas, and Sankosh . The Tista joins the Brahmaputra on its right bank in Bangladesh and from here, the river is known as the Yamuna.
Finally, the Brahmaputra merges with the river Padma and falls in the Bay of Bengal.
The Peninsular drainage system is older than the Himalayan Rivers. The Mahanadi originates from Sihawa in Raipur district of Chhattisgarh and runs through Madhya Pradesh and Odisha and finally discharges its water into the Bay of Bengal.
The total length of Mahanadi is 851 km. Popularly known as the Dakshin Ganga, the Godavari is the largest peninsular river system. The Godavari originates from Nasik district of Maharashtra and discharges its water into the Bay of Bengal. With total 1,465 km length, Godavari covers the areas of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, and Andhra Pradesh.
KThe Penganga, the Indravati, the Pranhita, and the Manjra are the major tributaries of Godavari. Originating from Mahabaleshwar in Sahyadri, the Krishna is the second largest east flowing Peninsular River.
The Koyna, the Tungabhadra, and the Bhima are the major tributaries of the Krishna. The river Kaveri’s total course of 770 km commands a basin area of 8.8 million hectare mha, of which, 3% lies in Kerala, 41% lies in Karnataka, and 56% lies in Tamil Nadu.
Major tributaries of the Kaveri are the Kabini, the Bhavani, and the Amravati. The Narmada originates from the western flank of the Amarkantak plateau (1,057 m).
Flowing through a rift valley located between the Satpura in the south and the Vindhya range in the north, the Narmada forms Dhuandhar waterfall and a picturesque gorge of marble rocks nearby Jabalpur.
The total length of Narmada is 1,312 km. Flowing in the westward direction, Narmada finally empties into the Arabian Seain the Bharuch district of Gujarat. Originating from Multai in the Betul district of Madhya Pradesh, Tapi is the other important westward flowing river emptying into the Arabian Sea.
During the winter, north of the Himalayas develops a high pressure center. This high pressure center gives rise to the flow of air at the low level from the north towards the Indian subcontinent (i.e. south of the mountain range).
All of Western and Central Asia remains under the influence of westerly winds (known as Jet Stream) along the altitude of 9-13 km from west to east. These winds blow across the Asian continent at the latitudes, north of the Himalayas, roughly parallel to the Tibetan highlands.
However, Tibetan highlands act as a barrier in the path of these jet streams, as a result of this, the jet streams get bifurcated into two branches. One branch is located to the south of the Himalayas, while the second branch is positioned to the north of Tibetan Plateau.
During the Summer, the wind circulation over the subcontinent undergoes a complete reversal at both, the lower as well as at the upper levels.
By the middle of July, the low pressure belt nearer the surface [termed as Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)] moves northwards, roughly parallel to the Himalayas between 20° N and 25°N.
The maritime tropical air mass (mT) from the southern hemisphere crosses the equator and rushes towards the low pressure area; in general, the southwesterly direction. This moist air current causing rainfall in India is popularly known as the southwest monsoon.
Simultaneously, an easterly jet stream flows over the southern part of the Peninsula in June with a maximum speed of 90 km per hour.
The easterly jet stream steers the tropical depressions into India and these depressions play a significant role in determining the distribution of monsoon rainfall over the Indian subcontinent.
The tracks of these depressions are the areas of the highest rainfall in India. The southwest monsoon, which is a continuation of the southeast trades, get deflected towards the Indian subcontinent after crossing the Equator.
The easterly jet stream is held responsible for the burst of the monsoon in India. The southwest monsoon sets first over the Kerala coast by 1st of June and then moves swiftly to reach Mumbai and Kolkata between 10th and 13th June. Further, by mid-July, southwest monsoon engulfs the entire subcontinent.
Southwest monsoon gets divided into two branches — the Arabian Sea, causing rain in western coast of India and the Bay of Bengal branch, causing rain in eastern coast to India. Generally, the cold weather season sets in by mid-November in northern India.
However, the Peninsular region of India does not have any well-defined cold weather season.
There is hardly any seasonal change in the distribution pattern of the temperature in coastal areas because of the moderating influence of the sea and the proximity to the equator.
Winter monsoons do not cause rainfall, as they move from land to the sea. Hence, primarily, they have little humidity; and secondly, due to anticyclonic circulation on land, the possibility of rainfall from them reduces.
However, in northwestern India, some weak temperate cyclones coming from the Mediterranean Sea (with little moisture) cause rainfall in Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, and western Uttar Pradesh.
On the other hand, during October and November, northeast monsoon while crossing over the Bay of Bengal, picks up moisture and causes torrential rainfall over the Tamil Nadu coast, southern Andhra Pradesh, southeast Karnataka, and southeast Kerala.
The shower causing coffee flowers blossom in Kerala and nearby areas is known as blossom shower.
Nor Westers are the dreaded evening thunderstorms in Bengal and Assam. During the south-west monsoon, the period after having rains for a few days, if rain fails to occur for one or more weeks, it is known as break in the monsoon.
The notorious nature of Nor Westers can be understood from the local nomenclature of Kalbaisakhi, meaning a calamity of the month of Baisakh. In Assam, Nor Westers are known as Bardoli Chheerha.
Hot, dry, and oppressing winds blowing in the Northern plains from Punjab to Bihar are known as Loo. The rain in the southwest monsoon season begins rather abruptly.
Sudden onset of the moisture-laden winds associated with violent thunder and lightning, is often termed as the “break” or “burst” of the monsoon. Tamil Nadu coast remains dry during the monsoon season because it is situated parallel to the Bay of Bengal branch of southwest monsoon.
The monsoon rainfall has a declining trend with increasing distance from the sea. For example, Kolkata receives 119 cm, Patna 105 cm, Allahabad 76 cm, and Delhi 56 cm.
The months of October and November are known as retreating monsoons season. The advent of south-west monsoon is known as advancing monsoon. As the south-west monsoon passes over the ocean surface (Indian Ocean, Arabian Sea, and Bay of Bengal) it picks up moisture and causes rainfall in India.
Windward side of Western Ghats receives heavy rainfall (more than 250 cm); however, as the distance increases from the sea, the amount and intensity of rainfall start decreasing.
The Bay of Bengal branch of monsoon advances towards the eastern part of India and causes heavy rainfall. North-east India receives heavy rainfall during the monsoon season.
Cherapunji and Mawsynram (two places of Meghalaya) are world’s wettest place. Though there are great spatial variations in India; the average annual rainfall of India is 125 cm.
The whole of India has a monsoon type of climate, but because of the regional variations, there are various types of climate in India.
Bay of Bengal
Gulf of Mexico
Largest Coral Reef
Great Barrier Reef (Australia)
Largest and Highest Plateau
Pamir (Tibet, China)
Malay Archipelago (Includes Indonesia and Philippines)
Largest Desert (Hot)
Sahara Desert (Africa)
Lambert Glacier (Antarctica)
Amazon (South America)
Pantanal (South America)
Ganges Delta or Sunderbans Delta (India/Bangladesh)
Tallest Volcano (subaerial)
Mauna Loa (Hawaii)*
Ojos del Salado (Chile-Argentina border)
Cotahuasi Canyon (Peru)
Deepest Point on Earth
Challenger Deep (Pacific Ocean)
Lake Baikal (Russia)
Angel Waterfalls (Venezuela)
Deserts of the World
Name of the Desert
Extends into countries
Algeria, Chad, Egypt, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Sudan, Tunisia
Chile, Peru, Bolivia, Argentina
Botswana, Namibia, South Africa
Jordan, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Yemen
Great Victoria Desert
Takla Makan Desert
Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Syria, Iraq
Mexico, United States
Great Basin Desert
Facts about Deserts
Deserts are areas which receive less than 25 cm of rain in an year.
About 1/3rd of Earth's land surface is covered by deserts.
The largest desert is Antarctica.
The largest hot desert is the Sahara Desert.
Atacama desert is the driest desert in the world.
Europe is the only continent which does not have any major deserts.
Name of the Lake
Tamilnadu and Andhra Pradesh
Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh
Udaipur in Rajasthan
Srinagar in Jammu and Kashmir
Bandipore in Jammu and Kashmir
Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir
Faridabad in Haryana
West Tripura, Tripura
Facts to remember on Lakes
Name of the Lake
Deepest lake in the world
Baikal (fresh water) in Russia
Largest fresh water lake
Lake Superior, between Canada and the USA
Largest lake in the world
Caspean Sea, bounded by Iran, Russia, Kazhakistan,
Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan
Saltiest lake in the world
Dead Sea bounded by Israel, Jordan and West Bank
Lowest lake in the world
Dead Sea between Israel and Jordan
Largest lake in India
Sambhar lake in Rajasthan
Largest fresh-water lake in India
Kolleru lake in Andhra Pradesh
Largest coastal lagoon in India
Chilka lake in Orissa
Sriharikota island is located in
Pulicat lake in Andhra Pradesh
Country known as land of thousand lakes - Finland
Waterfalls of India and The World
Kunchikal Falls (Tiered waterfalls)
Jog Falls or Gersoppa falls (Plunge waterfalls)
Lushington Falls or Unchalli Falls or Keppa Jog falls
Waterfalls of the World and Rivers
Note: There are innumerable waterfalls in the world but only a few are listed here keeping in view the scope of this website and that of GK required for competitive exams in India.
Important Islands of India
Sriharikota Island in Pulicat lake (Andhra Pradesh)
It houses India's satellite launch centre, Satish Dhawan Space Centre
Abdul Kalam Island in Bay of Bengal, off the coast of Odisha
Formerly known as Wheeler Island, missile test facility for the most of Indian missiles including long range ones is available here.
Sivasamudram Island in Kaveri river
It is an island town dividing the Kaveri River into twin waterfalls, the Gaganachukki and the Barachukki.
Cattle Island in Mahanadi river, Odisha
It is an island in the Hirakud reservoir completely inhabited by wild cattle which were once left behind by villagers when the village was vacated for construction of the dam.
Sagar Island in Bay of Bengal, West Bengal
The island is home to the endangered Royal Bengal Tiger. This island is a famous Hindu pilgrim place where every year on the day of Makar Sankranti (mid of January), thousands of Hindus gather to take a holy dip in the Ganga and offer puja in the Kapil Muni Temple.
Havelock Island in Andamans
Havelock Island is the largest of the islands which comprise Ritchie's Archipelago, a chain of islands to the east of Great Andaman in the Andaman Islands. In Jan 2011, Jal Hans, India's 1st Seaplane Service was launched Pawan Hans and the Administration of Andaman and Nicobar islands connecting Port Blair and Havelock island.
Barren Island in Andaman islands
Barren Island is located in the Andaman Sea. It is the only confirmed active volcano in South Asia. Along with the rest of the Andamans, it is a part of the Indian Union Territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The first recorded eruption was in 1787 and the latest being in May 2008.
Kachchatheevu in Palk Strait
Kachchatheevu is an uninhabited island originally belonging to India, but given to Sri Lanka in 1974 on a conditional basis. It has a Catholic shrine and has been declared as a sacred area by the government of Sri Lanka. Recently the island was in news when the Chief Minister of Tamilnadu filed a petition in the Supreme Court against India's ceding of the island to Sri Lanka.
Majuli Island in Brahmaputra river
The island was formed due to course changes by the river Brahmaputra and its tributaries, mainly the Lohit. A hotspot for flora and fauna, the island is under threat of erosion. The Government has sanctioned funds to save the island and also has nominated the island for inclusion in the natural sites list of UNESCO's World Heritage Sites list.
Salsette Island in Arabian Sea
Mumbai metropolis is located on the island, which is bounded by the Vasai Creek, Ulhas river and Thane Creek.
The Ramsar List is a list of wetlands all over the world. The list was established in response to an article of the Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar, Iran, 1971). The following is the list of major wetlands in India in descending order of area.
Point Calimere Wildlife and Bird Sanctuary
Upper Ganga River (Brijghat to Narora Stretch)
Jammu and Kashmir
Pong Dam Lake
Land masses divided
Water Bodies joined
Runs through Egypt
Mediterranean and Red Sea
Runs through Germany
North Sea and Baltic Sea
Alaska and Siberia
Pacific and Arctic
India and Sri Lanka
Bay of Bengal and Gulf of Mannar
Strait of Gibraltar
Africa and Europe
Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea
Strait of Malacca
Indonesia (Sumatra) and Malaysia (Malay)
Pacific Ocean and Indian Ocean
Runs through Republic of Panama
Pacific and Atlantic Oceans
England and France
North Sea and Atlantic Oceans
St. George's Channel
Ireland and Wales
Irish Sea and Atlantic Ocean (Celtic Sea)
North and South Islands of New Zealand
Tasman Sea and South Pacific Ocean
Ten Degree Channel
Andaman Islands and Nicobar Islands
Runs through Istanbul (Turkey) separating Asian part of Turkey from its European part
Black Sea and Sea of Marmara
Rutland Island (Great Andaman) and Little Andaman
Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea
Eight Degree Channel
Ihavandiffulu Atoll (Maldives) and Minicoy Island (Lakshadweep)