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Indian Physical Geography

India Physical Geography

India -Location


  • India is located entirely in the northern hemisphere; specifically in the south-central part of the continent of​​ Asia.

  • The mainland of India extends between latitudes​​ 80.4’N and 37.06’N​​ and longitudes 68.07’E and 97025’E (as shown in the map given below). The southern boundary extends up​​ to 6°45' N latitude in the Bay of​​ Bengal.

India -Size

  • With an area of 3.28 million square km, India is the​​ 7th largest country of the​​ world.

  • The six largest countries of the world in decreasing order are​​ Russia, Canada, USA, China, Brazil, and​​ Australia.

  • India accounts for about 2.4 percent of the total geographical area of the​​ world.

  • India has a total land boundary of about​​ 15,200 km.​​ The coastline of India stretches along the Bay of Bengal in the east and the Arabian Sea in the​​ west.

  • From Gujarat (westernmost) to Arunachal Pradesh (easternmost), there is about 300 difference; hence, because of this difference, there is a time difference of two hours between Gujarat and Arunachal​​ Pradesh.

  • The sun rises in Arunachal Pradesh about two hours earlier as compared to Jaisalmer in​​ Rajasthan.

  • The maximum length of the mainland from north to south is about 3214 km. The maximum length of the mainland from east to west is about 2933​​ km.

  • India’s total length of coastline is 6,100 km of its mainland and after including Andaman and Nicobar, and Lakshadweep islands, it is about 7,516​​ km.

  • India’s territorial limit further extends towards the sea up to 12 nautical miles (i.e. about 21.9 km) from the​​ coast.


Indian Standard Meridian

  • 82°30’E Meridian crossing through the Mirzapur city of Uttar Pradesh is taken as India’s Standard Meridian.

  • Indian Standard Time is ahead of Greenwich (00 or Prime Meridian) Mean Time by 5 hours and 30 minutes.

  • Tropic of cancer (23030’N) passes through Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Tripura, and Mizoram.​​ The difference in latitudinal extent influences the duration of day and night.India & Neighbours India has total 28 States, 8 Union Territories, and 1 National Capital Territory.

  • India is bounded by young fold mountains (the Great Himalaya) in the North and​​ North-East.

  • Throughout​​ the​​ history,​​ India’s​​ connections​​ with​​ other​​ parts​​ of​​ the​​ world​​ has​​ been​​ heavily​​ influenced by waterways and also the mountain​​ passes.

  • India shares its international boundaries with Afghanistan and Pakistan in the North-West; China, Tibet (China), Nepal, and Bhutan in the North and North-East; and Myanmar and Bangladesh in the East. Island countries Sri Lanka and Maldives are India’s neighbors across the​​ sea.

  • Sri Lanka is an island nation located off the southern coast of India in South Asia and it is bordered by the Indian Ocean. India and Sri Lanka are separated by a thin water body called​​ the Palk​​ Strait.


India -Structure

  • Based on geological history, India is divided into three​​ regions.

  • The regions​​ are:

    • The Peninsular​​ Block;

    • The Himalayas & other Peninsular Mountains;​​ and

    • Indo-Ganga-Brahmaputra​​ Plain.

  • The Peninsular Block is formed essentially by a great complex of very ancient gneisses and​​ granites.

  • The Peninsular Block mostly consists of relicts and residual mountains like the Aravali hills, the Nallamala hills, the Javadi hills, the Veliconda hills, the Palkondarange, the Mahendragiri hills,​​ etc.

  • Unlike the rigid and stable Peninsular Block, the Himalayan Mountains are young, weak, and​​ flexible in their geological​​ structure.

  • Indo-Ganga-Brahmaputra Plain comprises the plains formed by the river Indus, the Ganga, and the Brahmaputra.

  • In fact, Indo-Ganga-Brahmaputra Plain is a geo-synclinal depression, which attained its maximum development during the third phase of the Himalayan mountain formation, approximately about 64 million years​​ ago.




India’s physiography is divided into six following regions: o The Northern and Northeastern Mountains

  • The Northern​​ Plain

  • The Peninsular​​ Plateau

  • The Indian​​ Desert

  • The Coastal​​ Plains

  • The​​ Islands.


Northern and Northeastern Mountains

    • The Northern and the Northeastern Mountains consist of the Himalayas and the Northeastern hills. The Himalayan Ranges include the Greater Himalaya, Lesser/Middle Himalaya, and the Siwalik Range. Based on relief, alignment of ranges and other geomorphological features, the Himalayas can be divided into the following​​ sub-divisions:


  • Kashmir or Northwestern​​ Himalayas

  • Himachal and Uttaranchal​​ Himalayas

  • Darjeeling and Sikkim​​ Himalayas

  • Arunachal​​ Himalayas

  • Eastern Hills and​​ Mountains.

Kashmir or Northwestern Himalayas


    • Kashmir or Northwestern Himalayas consist of a series of ranges such as the Karakoram, Ladakh, Zanskar, and Pir Panjal. Important glaciers of South Asia, i.e., the Baltoro and Siachen are found​​ in the Northwestern Himalayan​​ region.

    • The Kashmir Himalayas are also popular for the Karewa formations, which are useful for the cultivation of Zafran, a local variety of​​ saffron.

    • Karewas are the thick deposits of glacial clay and other materials embedded with​​ moraines.

    • Important passes of the Northwestern Himalayas are Zoji La on the Great Himalayas, Banihal on the Pir Panjal, and Khardung La on the Ladakh​​ range.

    • Important fresh lakes are Dal and Wular and salt water lakes are Pangong Tso and Tso Moriri. The southernmost part of the Northwestern Himalayas consists of longitudinal valleys locally known as duns.


Himachal and Uttaranchal Himalayas​​ 

The Himachal and Uttarakhand Himalayas are located approximately between the rivers Ravi in the west and the Kali (a tributary of Ghaghara) in the east.


Darjeeling and Sikkim Himalayas​​ 

The Darjeeling and Sikkim Himalayas are flanked by the Nepal Himalayas in the west and the Bhutan Himalayas in the east.


Arunachal Himalayas​​ 

The Arunachal Himalayas extend from the east of the Bhutan Himalayas up to the Diphu pass in the east.

Some of the prominent tribes of Arunachal Himalayas from west to east are the Monpa, Abor, Mishmi, Nyishi, and the Nagas.

Eastern Hills and Mountains​​ 

Located in the northeast India, the Eastern Hills i.e. parts of the Himalayan mountains are known by different local names. They are known as Patkai Bum, Naga hills, the Manipur hills in the North, and Mizo or Lushai hills in the South.

Northern Plains

    • The northern plains are formed by the alluvial deposits brought by the rivers – the Indus, the Ganga, and the Brahmaputra. The northern plains are divided into three major zones:​​ the Bhabar, the Tarai, and the alluvial​​ plains.

    • Bhabar is a narrow belt spread between 8-10 km parallel to the Shiwalik foothills at the break-up of the slope where all the rivers coming through this way deposit heavy materials of rocks and boulders and get​​ disappeared.

    • These streams again re-emerge in Tarai region. The south of Tarai is a belt consisting of old and new alluvial deposits known as the Bhangar and Khadar accordingly. The alluvial plains are further divided as the​​ Khadar and the​​ Bhangar.


Peninsular Plateau

    • The Peninsular Block is made up of a series of patland plateaus such as the Hazaribagh plateau, the Palamu plateau, the Ranchi plateau, the Malwa plateau, the Coimbatore plateau, and the Karnataka plateau.

    • Delhi​​ ridge​​ in​​ the​​ northwest,​​ (extension​​ of​​ Aravalli’s),​​ the​​ Rajmahal​​ hills​​ in​​ the​​ east,​​ Gir​​ range​​ in​​ the west and the Cardamom hills in the south are the peripheral parts of the Peninsular​​ Block.

    • The Peninsular plateau can be further divided into three broad groups i.e. the Deccan Plateau, the Central Highlands, and the Northeastern​​ Plateau.

    • Western Ghats is known by different local names. They are known as Sahyadri in Maharashtra; Nilgiri hills in Karnataka and Tamil Nadu; and Anaimalai hills,and Cardamom hills in​​ Kerala.

    • Located on the Anaimalai hills of the Western Ghats Anaimudi (2,695 m) is the highest peak of Peninsular plateau, followed by Dodabetta (2,637 m) on the Nilgiri hills. Thal, Bhor, and the Pal Ghats are the important passes of the Western​​ Ghats.

    • The Eastern Ghats stretch from the Mahanadi Valley in the north to the Nilgiris in the The Eastern Ghats are discontinuous and irregular and dissected by many rivers draining into the Bay of​​ Bengal.

    • Mahendragiri (1,501 meters) is the highest peak of the Eastern Ghats. The most distinct feature of the peninsular plateau is the black soil area known as Deccan​​ Trap.

    • Formed by a series of scarped plateaus on the south, the Satpura range is part of the Central Highlands. The general elevation of the Central Highlands ranges between 700 and 1,000 m​​ above the mean sea​​ level.

    • Rajmahal hills and the Meghalaya plateau are the part of the Northeastern Plateau. The Meghalaya plateau is further sub-divided as the​​ Garo,Khasi,Jyantia Hills​​ is rich in mineral resources. The most significant of these resources are coal, iron ore, sillimanite, limestone, and​​ uranium.


Indian Desert

The Great Indian Desert, also known as the Thar Desert, lies in the northwest of the Aravalli hills.

Coastal Plains

    • The Indian coastal plains are divided as the western coastal plains and the eastern coastal​​ plains. The western coastal plains are an example of submerged coastal​​ plain.

    • The western coast may be divided into the following divisions – the Kachchh and Kathiawar coast in Gujarat; Konkan coast in Maharashtra; Goan coast in Karnataka, and the Malabar coast in Kerala respectively.

    • The Malabar Coast has certain distinctive features such as Kayals (backwaters), which are used for fishing, inland navigation, and these backwaters hold a special attraction for the​​ tourists.

    • In comparison to the western coastal plains, the eastern coastal plain is broader and is an example of an Emergent​​ coast.

    • The Eastern Coast is named as the Northern Circar (in the north part i.e. part of West Bengal, Odisha, etc.) and the southern part is known as the​​ Coromandel Coast​​ (part of Southern Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu). The eastern coastal plain is known as the Northern Circars in the region between Krishna and Mahanadi rivers (West Bengal, Odisha, etc.) and as the Coromandel​​ Coast.



    • There are two major island groups in India, i.e., one in the Bay of Bengal (Andaman and Nicobar) and the other in the Arabian Sea (Lakshadweep). The Bay of Bengal island group consists of about 572 islands/islets.

    • The two principal groups of islets include the​​ Ritchie’s archipelago and the Labyrinth Islands. However, the entire group of islands is divided into​​ two​​ broad categories – the Andaman in the north and the Nicobar in the south and they are separated by​​ Ten Degree​​ Channel.



Himalayan Drainage

Major Himalayan drainage systems are the Indus, the Ganga, and the Brahmaputra rivers.


The Indus​​ 

The total length of the Indus River system is 2,880 km (in India 1,114 km) The Indus, which is also known as the Sindhu, is the westernmost of the Himalayan Rivers in India. The Indus originates from a glacier near Bokhar Chu in the Tibetan region at an altitude of 4,164 m in the Kailash Mountain range.

In Tibet, the Indus is known as​​ Singi Khamban or the Lion’s mouth.​​ The Indus enters into Pakistan near Chillar in the Dardistan region.


The Ganga

    • The Ganga originates from the Gangotri glacier near Gaumukh (3,900 m) in the Uttarkashi district of Uttarakhand. However, the river, when it originates from the Gangotri glacier is known as the Bhagirathi.

    • At Devprayag, the Bhagirathi merges with another river, i.e., the Alaknanda; and from here, it is known as the Ganga. The Alaknanda originates from the Satopanth glacier above Badrinath. The major tributaries of the Alaknanda are the Dhauli and the Vishnu Ganga; these two rivers meet at Joshimath/Vishnu​​ Prayag.

    • Some other tributaries of the Alaknanda are the Pindar (joins at Karna Prayag), the Mandakini or Kali Ganga (joins at Rudra Prayag). The total length of the Ganga in India is 2,525 km, which is shared by Uttarakhand (110 km); Uttar Pradesh (1,450 km); Bihar (445 km); and West Bengal (520​​ km).

    • The Ganga river system is the largest river system in India. The Son is a major right bank​​ tributary​​ of the Ganga; however, major left bank tributaries are the Ramganga, the Gomati, the Ghaghara, the Gandak, the Kosi, and the​​ Mahananda.

    • Originating from the Yamunotri glacier on the western slopes of Banderpunchrange (6,316 km), the Yamuna is the longest tributary of the Ganga. The Yamuna joins the Ganga at Allahabad (Prayag), Uttar​​ Pradesh.

    • The Chambal, the Sind, the Betwa, and the Kenon are the right bank tributaries of the Yamuna and the Hindan, the Rind, the Sengar, the Varuna, etc. are the left bank​​ tributaries.

    • The Chambal rises near Mhow in the Malwa plateau of Madhya Pradesh. The Chambal is famous for its badland topography, known as the Chambal​​ ravines.

    • LOriginating from the Nepal Himalayas between the Dhaulagiri and Mount Everest, the Gandak consists of two streams, namely Kaligandak and Trishulganga. The Gandak joins the Ganga at Sonpur near Patna,​​ Bihar.

    • The Ghaghara originates from the Mapchachungo glaciers and joins the Ganga at Chhapra, Bihar.The Kosi originates from the north of Mount Everest in Tibet where it is known as the​​ Arun.

    • Originating from the Garhwal hills near Gairsain, the Ramganga joins the Ganga near Kannauj. The Damodar drains the eastern margins of the Chottanagpur plateau, where it flows through a rift valley and finally joins the​​ Hugli.

    • The Barakar is the main tributary of the Damodar. The Sarda or Saryu River rises from the Milam glacier in the Nepal Himalayas where it is known as the Goriganga. However, along the Indo-Nepal border, it is called as Kali or Chauk, where it joins the​​ Ghaghara.

    • Originating from the Darjeeling hills, the Mahananda joins the Ganga as its last left bank tributary in West Bengal. Originating from the Amarkantak plateau, the Son is a large south bank tributary of the Ganga; it joins the Ganga at Arrah,​​ Bihar.


The Brahmaputra

    • The​​ Brahmaputra​​ originates​​ from​​ Mansrover​​ as​​ the​​ Tsangpo​​ (means​​ ‘the​​ purifier’).​​ The​​ Rango Tsangpo is the major right bank tributary of the Brahmaputra in​​ Tibet.

    • The Brahmaputra enters into India near the west of Sadiya town in Arunachal Pradesh. Major left bank tributaries of the Brahmaputra are Lohit, Dibang or Sikang, BurhiDihing, and​​ Dhansari.

    • Major right bank tributaries of the Brahmaputra are the Subansiri, Kameng, Manas, and Sankosh . The Tista joins the Brahmaputra on its right bank in Bangladesh and from here, the river is known as the​​ Yamuna.

    • Finally, the Brahmaputra merges with the river​​ Padma​​ and falls in the Bay of​​ Bengal.


Peninsular River System

    • The Peninsular drainage system is older than the Himalayan Rivers. The Mahanadi originates​​ from Sihawa in Raipur district of Chhattisgarh and runs through Madhya Pradesh and Odisha and finally discharges its water into the Bay of​​ Bengal.

    • The total length of Mahanadi is 851 km. Popularly known as the Dakshin Ganga, the Godavari is the largest peninsular river system. The Godavari originates from Nasik district of Maharashtra and discharges its water into the Bay of Bengal. With total 1,465 km length, Godavari covers the areas of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, and Andhra​​ Pradesh.

    • KThe Penganga, the Indravati, the Pranhita, and the Manjra are the major tributaries of Godavari. Originating from Mahabaleshwar in Sahyadri, the Krishna is the second largest east flowing Peninsular​​ River.

    • The Koyna, the Tungabhadra, and the Bhima are the major tributaries of the Krishna. The river Kaveri’s total course of 770 km commands a basin area of 8.8 million hectare mha, of which, 3% lies in Kerala, 41% lies in Karnataka, and 56% lies in Tamil​​ Nadu.

    • Major tributaries of the Kaveri are the​​ Kabini, the Bhavani, and the Amravati.​​ The​​ Narmada originates from the western flank of the Amarkantak plateau (1,057​​ m).

    • Flowing through a rift valley located between the Satpura in the south and the Vindhya range in the north, the Narmada forms Dhuandhar waterfall and a picturesque gorge of marble rocks nearby Jabalpur.

    • The total length of​​ Narmada​​ is 1,312 km. Flowing in the westward direction, Narmada finally empties into the Arabian Seain the Bharuch district of Gujarat. Originating from Multai in the Betul district of Madhya Pradesh,​​ Tapi​​ is the other important westward flowing river emptying into the Arabian​​ Sea.





    • During the winter, north of the Himalayas develops a high pressure center. This high pressure center gives rise to the flow of air at the low level from the north towards the Indian subcontinent (i.e. south of the mountain​​ range).

    • All of Western and Central Asia remains under the influence of westerly winds (known as Jet Stream) along the altitude of 9-13 km from west to east. These winds blow across the Asian continent at the latitudes, north of the Himalayas, roughly parallel to the Tibetan​​ highlands.

    • However, Tibetan highlands act as a barrier in the path of these jet streams, as a result of this, the jet streams get bifurcated into two branches. One branch is located to the south of the Himalayas, while the second branch is positioned to the north of Tibetan​​ Plateau.




    • During the Summer, the wind circulation over the subcontinent undergoes a complete reversal at both, the lower as well as at the upper​​ levels.

    • By the middle of July, the low pressure belt nearer the surface [termed as Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)] moves northwards, roughly parallel to the Himalayas between 20° N and​​ 25°N.




    • The maritime tropical air mass (mT) from the southern hemisphere crosses the equator and rushes towards the low pressure area; in general, the southwesterly direction. This moist air current causing rainfall in India is popularly known as the southwest​​ monsoon.

    • Simultaneously, an easterly jet stream flows over the southern part of the Peninsula in June with a maximum speed of 90 km per​​ hour.

    • The easterly jet stream steers the tropical depressions into India and these depressions play​​ a significant role in determining the distribution of monsoon rainfall over the Indian​​ subcontinent.

    • The tracks of these depressions are the areas of the highest rainfall in India. The southwest monsoon, which is a continuation of the southeast trades, get deflected towards the Indian subcontinent after crossing the​​ Equator.

    • The easterly jet stream is held responsible for the burst of the monsoon in India. The southwest monsoon sets first over the Kerala coast by 1st of June and then moves swiftly to reach Mumbai and Kolkata between 10th and 13th June. Further, by mid-July, southwest monsoon engulfs the entire subcontinent.

    • Southwest monsoon gets divided into two branches — the Arabian Sea, causing rain in western coast of India and the Bay of Bengal branch, causing rain in eastern coast to India. Generally, the cold weather season sets in by mid-November in northern​​ India.

    • However, the Peninsular region of India does not have any well-defined cold weather​​ season.

    • There is hardly any seasonal change in the distribution pattern of the temperature in coastal​​ areas because of the moderating influence of the sea and the proximity to the​​ equator.

    • Winter monsoons do not cause rainfall, as they move from land to the sea. Hence, primarily, they have little humidity; and secondly, due to anticyclonic circulation on land, the possibility of rainfall​​ from them reduces.

    • However, in northwestern India, some weak temperate cyclones coming from the Mediterranean Sea (with little moisture) cause rainfall in Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, and western Uttar​​ Pradesh.

    • On the other hand, during October and November, northeast monsoon while crossing over the Bay of Bengal, picks up moisture and causes torrential rainfall over the Tamil Nadu coast, southern Andhra Pradesh, southeast Karnataka, and southeast​​ Kerala.


Interesting Facts


    • The shower causing coffee flowers blossom in Kerala and nearby areas is known as blossom​​ shower.

    • Nor Westers are the dreaded evening thunderstorms in Bengal and Assam. During the south-west monsoon, the period after having rains for a few days, if rain fails to occur for one or more weeks, it​​ is known as break in the​​ monsoon.

    • The notorious nature of Nor Westers can be understood from the local nomenclature of Kalbaisakhi, meaning a calamity of the month of Baisakh. In Assam, Nor Westers are known as​​ Bardoli Chheerha.

    • Hot, dry, and oppressing winds blowing in the Northern plains from Punjab to Bihar are known as Loo. The rain in the southwest monsoon season begins rather​​ abruptly.

    • Sudden onset of the moisture-laden winds associated with violent thunder and lightning, is often termed as the “break” or “burst” of the monsoon. Tamil Nadu coast remains dry during the monsoon season because it is situated parallel to the Bay of Bengal branch of southwest​​ monsoon.

    • The monsoon rainfall has a declining trend with increasing distance from the sea. For example, Kolkata receives 119 cm, Patna 105 cm, Allahabad 76 cm, and Delhi 56​​ cm.

    • The months of October and November are known as retreating monsoons season. The advent of south-west monsoon is known as advancing monsoon. As the south-west monsoon passes over the ocean surface (Indian Ocean, Arabian Sea, and Bay of Bengal) it picks up moisture and causes rainfall in​​ India.

    • Windward side of Western Ghats receives heavy rainfall (more than 250 cm); however, as​​ the distance increases from the sea, the amount and intensity of rainfall start​​ decreasing.

    • The Bay of Bengal branch of monsoon advances towards the eastern part of India and causes heavy rainfall. North-east India receives heavy rainfall during the monsoon​​ season.

    • Cherapunji and Mawsynram​​ (two places of Meghalaya) are world’s wettest place. Though there are great spatial variations in India; the average annual rainfall of India is 125​​ cm.

    • The whole of India has a monsoon type of climate, but because of the regional variations, there are various types of climate in​​ India.


Largest Geographical Feartures in the World




Largest Continent


Largest Ocean

Pacific Ocean

Largest Bay

Bay of Bengal

Largest Gulf

Gulf of Mexico

Largest Peninsula

Arabian Peninsula

Largest Island


Largest Coral Reef

Great Barrier Reef (Australia)

Largest and Highest Plateau

Pamir (Tibet, China)

Largest Archipelago

Malay Archipelago (Includes Indonesia and Philippines)

Largest Desert (Hot)

Sahara Desert (Africa)

Largest Desert


Largest Glacier

Lambert Glacier (Antarctica)

Largest River

Amazon (South America)

Largest Lake

Caspean Sea

Largest Swamp

Pantanal (South America)

Largest Delta

Ganges Delta or Sunderbans Delta (India/Bangladesh)

Tallest Volcano (subaerial)

Mauna Loa (Hawaii)*

Tallest Volcano

Ojos del Salado (Chile-Argentina border)

Deepest Canyon

Cotahuasi Canyon (Peru)

Deepest Point on Earth

Challenger Deep (Pacific Ocean)

Deepest Lake

Lake Baikal (Russia)

Highest Waterfalls

Angel Waterfalls (Venezuela)

Deserts of the World


Name of the Desert

Extends into countries

Sahara Desert

Algeria, Chad, Egypt, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Sudan, Tunisia


Chile, Peru, Bolivia, Argentina

Kalahari Desert

Botswana, Namibia, South Africa

Arabian Desert

Jordan, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Yemen

Gobi Desert

Mongolia, China

Great Victoria Desert


Patagonian Desert

Argentina, Chile

Thar Desert

India, Pakistan

Takla Makan Desert


Syrian Desert

Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Syria, Iraq

Chihuahuan Desert

Mexico, United States

Great Basin Desert

United States

Mojave Desert

United States

Karakum Desert


Facts about Deserts

  • Deserts are areas which receive less than​​ 25 cm​​ of rain in an​​ year.

  • About​​ 1/3rd​​ of Earth's land surface is covered by​​ deserts.

  • The largest desert is​​ Antarctica.

  • The largest hot desert is the​​ Sahara​​ Desert.

  • Atacama desert​​ is the driest desert in the​​ world.

  • Europe​​ is the only continent which does not have any major​​ deserts.

Lakes in India


Name of the Lake


Kolleru lake

Andhra Pradesh

Pulicat lake

Tamilnadu and Andhra Pradesh

Hussain Sagar

Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh

Ulsoor lake

Bengaluru, Karnataka

Sambhar lake


Pichola lake

Udaipur in Rajasthan

Dal lake

Srinagar in Jammu and Kashmir

Wular lake

Bandipore in Jammu and Kashmir

Pangong lake

Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir


Faridabad in Haryana

Rudrasagar lake

West Tripura, Tripura

Bellandur lake


Cholamu lake



Facts to remember on Lakes


Related Fact

Name of the Lake

Deepest lake in the world

Baikal (fresh water) in Russia

Largest fresh water lake

Lake Superior, between Canada and the USA


Largest lake in the world

Caspean Sea, bounded by Iran, Russia, Kazhakistan,

Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan

Saltiest lake in the world

Dead Sea bounded by Israel, Jordan and West Bank

Lowest lake in the world

Dead Sea between Israel and Jordan

Largest lake in India

Sambhar lake in Rajasthan

Largest fresh-water lake in India

Kolleru lake in Andhra Pradesh

Largest coastal lagoon in India

Chilka lake in Orissa

Sriharikota island is located in

Pulicat lake in Andhra Pradesh

Country known as land of thousand lakes - Finland


Waterfalls of India and The World

Waterfalls in India






Kunchikal Falls (Tiered waterfalls)

1493 ft



Barehipani Falls

1309 ft



Langshiang Falls

1107 ft



Dudhsagar Falls

1017 ft



Nohkalikai Falls

1100 ft



Jog Falls or Gersoppa falls (Plunge waterfalls)

829 ft



Magod Falls

650 ft



Lushington Falls or Unchalli Falls or Keppa Jog falls

380 ft



Sivasamudram Falls

320 ft



Hundru Falls

320 ft



Kapildhara Falls

100 ft


Madhya Pradesh

Waterfalls of the World and Rivers





Niagara falls


Canada/United States

Victoria falls



Angel falls



Iguacu falls



Kaieteur Falls



Note: There are innumerable waterfalls in the world but only a few are listed here keeping in view the scope of this website and that of GK required for competitive exams in India.


Important Islands of India

    • Sriharikota Island in Pulicat lake (Andhra​​ Pradesh)

It houses India's satellite launch centre, Satish Dhawan Space Centre

    • Abdul Kalam Island in Bay of Bengal, off the coast of​​ Odisha

Formerly known as Wheeler Island, missile test facility for the most of Indian missiles including long range ones is available here.

    • Sivasamudram Island in Kaveri​​ river

It is an island town dividing the Kaveri River into twin waterfalls, the Gaganachukki and the Barachukki.

    • Cattle Island in Mahanadi river,​​ Odisha

It is an island in the Hirakud reservoir completely inhabited by wild cattle which were once left behind by villagers when the village was vacated for construction of the dam.

    • Sagar Island in Bay of Bengal, West​​ Bengal

The island is home to the endangered Royal Bengal Tiger. This island is a famous Hindu pilgrim place where every year on the day of Makar Sankranti (mid of January), thousands of Hindus gather to take a holy dip in the Ganga and offer puja in the Kapil Muni Temple.

    • Havelock Island in​​ Andamans

Havelock Island is the largest of the islands which comprise Ritchie's Archipelago, a chain of islands to the east of Great Andaman in the Andaman Islands. In Jan 2011, Jal Hans, India's 1st Seaplane Service was launched Pawan Hans and the Administration of Andaman and Nicobar islands connecting Port Blair and Havelock island.

    • Barren Island in Andaman islands

Barren Island is located in the Andaman Sea. It is the only confirmed active volcano in South Asia. Along with the rest of the Andamans, it is a part of the Indian Union Territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The first recorded eruption was in 1787 and the latest being in May 2008.

    • Kachchatheevu in Palk​​ Strait

Kachchatheevu is an uninhabited island originally belonging to India, but given to Sri Lanka in 1974 on a conditional basis. It has a Catholic shrine and has been declared as a sacred area by the government of Sri Lanka. Recently the island was in news when the Chief Minister of Tamilnadu filed a petition in the Supreme Court against India's ceding of the island to Sri Lanka.

    • Majuli Island in Brahmaputra​​ river

The island was formed due to course changes by the river Brahmaputra and its tributaries, mainly the Lohit. A hotspot for flora and fauna, the island is under threat of erosion. The Government has sanctioned funds to save the island and also has nominated the island for inclusion in the natural sites list of UNESCO's World Heritage Sites list.

    • Salsette Island in Arabian​​ Sea

Mumbai metropolis is located on the island, which is bounded by the Vasai Creek, Ulhas river and Thane Creek.



Wetlands Of India

The Ramsar List is a list of wetlands all over the world. The list was established in response to an article of the Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar, Iran, 1971). The following is the list of major wetlands in India in descending order of area.





Vembanad-Kol Wetland

1,51,250 hectares


Chilika Lake

116,500 hectares


Kolleru Lake

90,100 hectares

Andhra Pradesh

Bhitarkanika Mangroves

65,000 hectares


Ashtamudi Wetland

61,400 hectares


Point Calimere Wildlife and Bird Sanctuary

38,500 hectares


Loktak Lake

26,600 hectares


Upper Ganga River (Brijghat to Narora Stretch)

26,590 hectares

Uttar Pradesh

Sambhar Lake

24,000 hectares


Wular Lake

18,900 hectares

Jammu and Kashmir

Pong Dam Lake

15,662 hectares

Himachal Pradesh


Canals and Straits



Land masses divided

Water Bodies joined

Suez Canal

Runs through Egypt

Mediterranean and Red Sea

Kiel Canal

Runs through Germany

North Sea and Baltic Sea

Bering Strait

Alaska and Siberia

Pacific and Arctic

Palk Strait

India and Sri Lanka

Bay of Bengal and Gulf of Mannar

Strait of Gibraltar

Africa and Europe

Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea

Strait of Malacca

Indonesia (Sumatra) and Malaysia (Malay)

Pacific Ocean and Indian Ocean

Panama Canal

Runs through Republic of Panama

Pacific and Atlantic Oceans

English Channel

England and France

North Sea and Atlantic Oceans

St. George's Channel


Ireland and Wales

Irish Sea and Atlantic Ocean (Celtic Sea)

Cook Strait

North and South Islands of New Zealand

Tasman Sea and South Pacific Ocean

Ten Degree Channel

Andaman Islands and Nicobar Islands


Bosphorus Strait

Runs through Istanbul (Turkey) separating Asian part of Turkey from its European part

Black Sea and Sea of Marmara

Duncan Passage

Rutland Island (Great Andaman) and Little Andaman

Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea

Eight Degree Channel

Ihavandiffulu Atoll (Maldives) and Minicoy Island (Lakshadweep)

Arabian Sea