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Crops and its production

Crops in India

  • The crop which requires water-logging for its cultivation is RICE
  • The crop best suited in areas where rain falls only for two months is PULSES
  • The ideal crop for areas with rainfall above 200 cm and sloping hills is TEA
  • The crop which requires a large amount of rainfall and no standing water is TEA
  • The plants which are best for biological nitrogen fixation of the soil is LEGUMES
  • The crops grown for sale in the market (as against consumption by the farmer) are known as Cash CROP
  • The crop which is sown in largest area in India is Rice (43.9 million hectares as per 2013-14 estimates)
  • The crop whose production is the largest in India is Sugarcane (348.4 million tonnes as per 2013-14 estimates)
  • The cereal crop whose production is the largest in India is Rice (106.3 million tonnes as per 2013-14 estimates)
  • The agricultural produce which has the highest percentage share of imports is Edible Oil (about 68% of imports of food and allied products)
  • The agricultural produce which has the highest percentage share of exports is RICE.

Kharif, Rabi and Zaid Crops

 

CropPeriodMajor Crops
KharifJune to OctoberRice, millets
RabiNovember to MarchWheat, barley, mustard
ZaidMarch to JuneWater melon, cucumber, musk melon, sugarcane
Kharif means autumn in Arabic and kharif crops are harvested in winter, Rabi means spring in Arabic and rabi crops are harvest in spring (March)

Top Crop Producing States

CropState
The largest producer of paddy in IndiaWest Bengal
The largest producer of wheat in IndiaUttar Pradesh
The largest producer of sugarcane in IndiaUttar Pradesh
The largest producer of potato in IndiaUttar Pradesh
The largest producer of groundnut in IndiaGujarat
The largest producer of tea in IndiaAssam
The largest producer of coffee in IndiaKarnataka
The largest producer of jute in IndiaWest Bengal
The largest producer of tobacco in IndiaAndhra Pradesh
The largest producer of bananas in IndiaTamil Nadu
The largest producer of cassava in IndiaTamil Nadu
The largest producer of saffron in IndiaJammu u0026amp; Kashmir
The largest producer of onion in IndiaMaharashtra

 

The largest producer of cashew nuts in IndiaMaharashtra
The largest producer of garlic in IndiaMadhya Pradesh
The largest producer of black pepper in IndiaKerala
The largest producer of cotton in IndiaGujarat
The largest producer of bamboos in IndiaAssam
The largest producer of litchis in IndiaBihar
The largest producer of small cardamom in IndiaKerala
The largest producer of large cardamom in IndiaSikkim
The largest producer of chilli in IndiaAndhra Pradesh

Top Crop Producing Countries

 

CropCountry
Largest producer of cardamomGuatemala
Largest producer of vanillaIndonesia
Largest producer of saffronIran
Largest producer of black pepperVietnam
Largest producer of rubberThailand
Largest producer of cornUnited States
Largest producer of cashew nutVietnam
Largest producer of cinnamonIndonesia
Largest producer of clovesIndonesia
Largest producer of cocoaCote d’Ivoire
Largest producer of coconutsIndonesia
Largest producer of coffeeBrazil
Largest producer of datesEgypt
Largest producer of orangesBrazil
Largest producer of pistachiosIran
Largest producer of quinoaBolivia
Largest producer of strawberryChina
Largest producer of walnutsChina

 

Largest producer of apricotsTurkey
Largest producer of almondsUSA

Crops : India’s Rank in the World

 

FeatureRank
Millets, Lemon u0026amp; limes, Bananas, Sesame, Ginger, Mangoes, Papayas, Jute, Castor Oil seed, Safflower oil seed, Cottonseed* 

First

Sugarcane, Wheat, Onion, Potatoes, Garlic, Rice, TeaSecond
*As per International Cotton Advisory Committee (ICAC) report for the month of March 2017

Types of Farming

Subsistence Farming

  • Small land holdings
  • Use of primitive tools and methods
  • Lack of fertilisers and high yielding varieties of seeds
  • Most of the yield is consumed by the family

Intensive Farming

  • Mechanised agriculture
  • Use of advanced fertilisers
  • Use of high yielding variety of seeds
  • Profit oriented agriculture

Shifting Agriculture

  • Practised mostly by tribals
  • Forest land is cleared by felling of trees and burning
  • Crops are then grown till the fertility of soil decreases
  • The land is then abandoned and a new piece of land is
  • Known as jhum in Assam and Podu in