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Vaccines

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Diseases caused by Bacteria:

Disease

Affected Organ

Bacteria name

treatment

Tuberculosis

Lungs

Mycobacterium Tuberculo.

BCG vaccine

Typhoid

Intestine

Salmonella typhi

Antibiotics,​​ Ty21a vaccine

Cholera

Intestine

Vibrio Cholerae

Antibiotics

Diphtheria

Respiratory tube

Cornybacterium diphtherae

DPT/DTP vaccine

Tetanus

Nervous system

Clostridium tetani

Tdap vaccine

Leprosy

Nervous system, skin

Mycobacterium leprae

antibiotics

Plague

Lungs, between two legs

Pasteurella pesties

antibiotics

 

Diseases caused by Protozoa:

Disease

Affected organ

parasite

Treatment

Malaria

RBCs, Liver

plasmodium

Anti-malarial drugs

Pyorrhoea (periodontitis)

Gums

Entamoeba gingivelis

antibiotics

Diarrhoea

intestine

Entamoeba histolytica

 

Black fever (kala azar)

Bone marrow

Leismania donovani

Anti-parasites

 

Diseases caused by viruses:

 

 

Disease

Affected Organ

Name of virus

treatment

Chicken pox

Whole body

Variola/ Varicella zoster virus

Varivax vaccine (95% effective)

Measles (Rubeola)

Whole body

morbeli

MMR vaccine

Rabies​​ (Hydrophobia)

Nervous system

Rabies virus,

Australian bat iyssavirus

No cure, only prevention through rabies vaccine- TCV, PCECV

Hepatitis (A,B,C,D,E, G)

Liver

 

Vaccine only for A,B

Polio (Poliomyelitis)

Throat, backbone nerve

Poliovirus

OPV vaccine (Pulse polio programme for polio vaccine)

Influenza

Whole body

Mixo

Antiviral medicines

Dengue

Whole body, particularly, head, eye, joints

many

 

AIDS

Defensive system (white blood cells)

HIV

Antiretroviral therapy

 

*largest parasitic killer: malaria

* 2nd​​ largest: kala azar

*most dangerous bacterial disease: tuberculosis

*most no. of deaths by : heart diseases (Cardiovascular)

 

NEW DISEASES:

  • Leishmaniasis: Parasitic infection, historically “Aleppo boil”, by bite of sand fly, common in Europe

  • Rift valley fever: mosquitoes,in Africa

  • Oropouche: mosquitoes (celux), latin america

  • Mayaro: like chikungunya, by Aedes mosquitoes, title: ‘the next zika’, zika caused by aedes mosquitoes, 1st​​ in ahmedabad in india.

National Health insurance schemes:

  • Rashtiya Swasthiya Bima Yojana (RSBY)

RSBY - launched by​​ Ministry of Labour and Employment,​​ Government of India to provide health insurance coverage for​​ Below Poverty Line (BPL) families.

Objective - to provide protection to BPL households from financial liabilities arising out of health shocks that involve hospitalization. Beneficiaries under RSBY are entitled to hospitalization coverage up to Rs. 30,000. There is no age limit. Coverage extends to five members of the family. Beneficiaries need to pay​​ only Rs. 30/- as registration fee.

2. Aam Aadmi Bima Yojana(AABY)

​​ launched on​​ 2nd October, 2007. The head of the family or one earning member in the family of such a household is covered under the scheme. The premium of Rs.200/- per person per annum is shared equally by the Central Government and the State Government.​​ The member to be covered should​​ be aged between 18 and 59 years.

  • Universal Health Insurance Scheme (UHIS)

The scheme provides for reimbursement of medical expenses upto​​ Rs.30,000 to the entire family, death cover due to an accident Rs.25,000 to the earning head of the family and compensation due to loss of earning of the earning member Rs.50 per day upto maximum of 15 days.​​ The UHIS has been redesigned targeting​​ only the BPL​​ families.​​ The premium subsidy has been enhanced from Rs.100 to Rs.200 for an individual, Rs.300 for a family of five and Rs.400 for a family of seven.

  • The National Rural Health Mission​​ 

Now under National Health Mission is an initiative undertaken by the government​​ of India to address the health needs of under-served rural areas.

​​ Launch year2005 by Narendra Modi

MinistryMinistry of Health and Family Welfare

 

5.Mission Indradhanush:

Launched by the​​ Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India on December 25, 2014. The Mission Indradhanush aims to cover all those children by 2020 who are either unvaccinated, or are partially vaccinated against vaccine preventable diseases. India’s Universal Immunisation Programme (UIP) provide free vaccinesto all children across the country against diseases Tuberculosis, Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Polio, Hepatitis B, Pneumonia and Meningitis.

 

6.Janani Shishu Suraksha Karyakaram (JSSK):​​ on 1st June, 2011. The scheme is to benefit pregnant women who access Government health facilities for their delivery. The entitlements include free drugs and consumables, free diet up to 3 days during normal delivery and up to 7 days for C-section, free diagnostics, and free blood wherever required.

 

*Vaccines for children:

 

Chickenpox (varicella; Var)

2 doses of chickenpox vaccine. The first dose at 12–15 months and the second at 4–6 years.​​ 

Diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough (pertussis; DTaP)

5 doses of DTaP vaccine.​​ The first dose is given at 2 months, the second at 4 months, the third at 6 months, the fourth at 15–18 months, and the fifth at 4–6 years.

Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)

3–4 doses of Hib vaccine. The first dose is given at 2 months, the second at 4 months, the third at 6 months (if needed), and the last at 12–15 months.​​ 

Hepatitis A (HepA)

2 doses of hepatitis A vaccine. The first dose is given at age 1 year and the second 6–12 months later.

Hepatitis B (HepB)

3–4 doses of hepatitis B vaccine. The first dose is given at birth, the second at 1–2 months, the third at 4 months (if needed), and the last at 6–18 months.

Influenza (Flu)

Everyone age 6 months and older needs influenza vaccination every fall or winter and for the rest of their lives. Some children younger than age 9 years need 2 doses.

Measles, mumps, rubella (MMR)

2 doses of MMR vaccine. The first dose is given at 12–15 months and the second at 4–6 years. I

Polio (IPV)

4 doses of polio vaccine (IPV).​​ The first dose is given at 2 months, the second at 4 months, the third at 6–18 months, and the fourth at 4–6 years.