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Introduction :

According to the India State of Forest Report 2011, the actual forest cover in India is 21.05%, of which, 12.29% are dense forests and 8.75% are open forests.Andaman and Nicobar Islands have 86.93% forest area; on the other hand, Lakshadweep has zero per cent forest area.

With (about) 90 percent of forest cover, Mizoram has the highest percentage of forest area in India. Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and Gujarat have less than 10 percent area under forest cover. The Government of India proposed to have a nation-wide forest conservation policy, and adopted a forest policy in 1952, and further amended in 1988.

Wildlife –

India is one of the 12th mega bio-diversity countries of the world. With approximately 47,000 plant species, India ranks 4th in Asia and 10th in the world (in terms of plant diversity).

Wildlife Act –

In 1972, a comprehensive Wildlife Act was enacted, which instructed the main legal framework for conservation and protection of the wildlife in India.
Further, in 1991, the Act of 1972 has been comprehensively amended. In the amendment, punishments have been made more stringent and provisions have also been made for the protection of specified plant species and conservation of endangered species of wild animals.
Besides, some other special schemes such as Project Tiger (1973) and Project Elephant (1992) have been launched to conserve these species and their habitats.



        NATIONAL PARKS                                                           STATES

Papikonda National ParkAndhra Pradesh
Rajiv Gandhi National ParkAndhra Pradesh
Lanjamadugu Wildlife SanctuaryAndhra Pradesh
Namdapha National ParkArunachal Pradesh
Dibang Wildlife SanctuaryArunachal Pradesh
Manas National Park (UNESCO)Assam
Nameri National ParkAssam
Rajiv Gandhi Orang National ParkAssam
Kaziranga National Park (UNESCO)Assam
Dibru Sai Khowa National ParkAssam
Gautam Budha Wildlife SanctuaryBihar
Valmild National ParkBihar
Rajgir Wildlife SanctuaryBihar
Indravati National ParkChhattisgarh
Achanakmar Wildlife SanctuaryChhattisgarh
Kanger Valley National ParkChhattisgarh
Tamor Pingla Wildlife SanctuaryChhattisgarh
Guru Ghasi Das (Sanjay) National ParkChhattisgarh
Gomarda Wildlife SanctuaryChhattisgarh
Bhagwan Mahavir National ParkGoa
Vansda National ParkGujarat
Kutch Desert Wildlife SanctuaryGujarat
Indian Wild Ass SanctuaryGujarat
Marine National Park (First Marine National Park)Gujarat
Black Buck National ParkGujarat
Gir Forest National ParkGujarat
Kalesar National ParkHaryana
Sultanpur National ParkHaryana
Lippa Asrang Wildlife SanctuaryHimachal Pradesh
Tundah Wildlife SanctuaryHimachal Pradesh
Inderkilla National ParkHimachal Pradesh
Great Himalayan National ParkHimachal Pradesh
Pin Valley National ParkHimachal Pradesh
Khirganga National ParkHimachal Pradesh
Simbalbara National ParkHimachal Pradesh
Sechu Tuan Nala Wildlife SanctuaryHimachal Pradesh
Salim All National ParkJammu u0026amp; Kashmir
Kishtwar National ParkJammu u0026amp; Kashmir
Hemis National Park (Largest in Area)Jammu u0026amp; Kashmir
Changtang Wildlife SanctuaryJammu u0026amp; Kashmir
Dachigam National ParkJammu u0026amp; Kashmir
Kara Koram Wildlife SanctuaryJammu u0026amp; Kashmir
Hirpora Wildlife SanctuaryJammu u0026amp; Kashmir
Lachipora Wildlife SanctuaryJammu u0026amp; Kashmir
Betla National Park (India’s first tiger reserve)Jharkhand
Hazaribagh National ParkJharkhand
Lawalong Wildlife SanctuaryJharkhand
Nagarhole National ParkKarnataka
Cauvery Wildlife SanctuaryKarnataka
Kudremukh National ParkKarnataka
Bannerghatta National ParkKarnataka
Bandipur National ParkKarnataka
Arabithittu Wildlife SanctuaryKarnataka
Nugu Wildlife SanctuaryKarnataka
Pushpagiri Wildlife SanctuaryKarnataka
Chinnar Wild Life SanctuaryKerala
Idukki Wildlife SanctuaryKerala
Periyar National ParkKerala
Silent Valley National ParkKerala
Eravikulam National ParkKerala
Parambikulam Wildlife SanctuaryKerala
Malabar Wildlife SanctuaryKerala
Anamudi Shola National ParkKerala
Pampadum Shola National ParkKerala
Pench National ParkMadhya Pradesh
Bandhavgarh National Park (Highest Numbers of Tigers)Madhya Pradesh
Kanha National ParkMadhya Pradesh
Madhav National ParkMadhya Pradesh
Panna National ParkMadhya Pradesh
Satpura National ParkMadhya Pradesh
Van Vihar National ParkMadhya Pradesh
Gandhi Sagar SanctuaryMadhya Pradesh
National Chambal SanctuaryMadhya Pradesh
Mandla Plant Fossils National ParkMadhya Pradesh
Pachmari Wildlife SanctuaryMadhya Pradesh
Phen Wildlife SanctuaryMadhya Pradesh
Ratapani Tiger ReserveMadhya Pradesh
Sanjay National ParkMadhya Pradesh
Chandoli National ParkMaharashtra
Gugamal National ParkMaharashtra
Sanjay Gandhi (Borivilli) National ParkMaharashtra
Koyna Wildlife SanctuaryMaharashtra
Navegaon National ParkMaharashtra
Tadoba National ParkMaharashtra
Dhakna Kolkaz Wildlife SanctuaryMaharashtra
Phansad Wildlife SanctuaryMaharashtra
Wain Ganga Wildlife SanctuaryMaharashtra
Keibul Lamjao National ParkManipur
Yagoupokpi Lokchao Wildlife SanctuaryManipur
Nokrek National ParkMeghalaya
Nongkhyllem Wildlife SanctuaryMeghalaya
Balphakram National ParkMeghalaya
Khawnglung Wildlife SanctuaryMizoram
Murlen National ParkMizoram
Ngengpui Wildlife SanctuaryMizoram
Phawngpui Blue Mountain National ParkMizoram
Pulebarze Wildlife SanctuaryNagaland
Intanki National ParkNagaland
Simplipal National ParkOrissa
Chilka Wild Life SanctuaryOrissa
Baisipalli Wildlife SanctuaryOrissa
Bhitarkanika National ParkOrissa
Debrigarh Wildlife SanctuaryOrissa
Kuldiha Wildlife SanctuaryOrissa
Ranthambore National ParkRajasthan
Sariska National ParkRajasthan
First National Park in the world, which was successfully adapted by Royal Bengal Tiger]
Darrah National ParkRajasthan
Desert National ParkRajasthan
Keoladeo National Park (UNESCO)Rajasthan
Mount Abu Wildlife SanctuaryRajasthan
Jawaharsagar Wildlife SanctuaryRajasthan
Phulwari Wildlife SanctuaryRajasthan
 Keladevi Wildlife SanctuaryRajasthan
Fambonglho Wildlife SanctuarySikkim
Khangchendzonga National ParkSikkim
Kyongnosla Alpine SanctuarySikkim
Pangolakha Wildlife SanctuarySikkim
Shingba Rhododendron SanctuarySikkim
Mukurthi National ParkTamilnadu
Shenbagathoppu Grizzled Squirrel Wildlife SanctuaryTamilnadu
Satyamanglam wild Life SanctuaryTamilnadu
Indira Gandhi (Annamalai) National ParkTamilnadu
Guindy National ParkTamilnadu
Mudumalai National ParkTamilnadu
Vettangundi Wildlife SanctuaryTamilnadu
Gulf of Mannar Marine National ParkTamilnadu
Mrugavani National ParkTelangana
Sipahijola Wildlife SanctuaryTripura
Bisan (Rajbari) National ParkTripura
Gumti Wildlife SanctuaryTripura
Clouded Leopard National ParkTripura
Chandra Prabha Wildlife SanctuaryUttar Pradesh
Dudhwa National ParkUttar Pradesh
Ranipur SanctuaryUttar Pradesh
Rajaji National ParkUttarakhand
Gangotri National ParkGangotri National PaAUttarakhand
Nanda Devi National Park (UNESCO)Uttarakhand
Jim Corbett National Park (Oldest Park)Uttarakhand
Valley of Flowers National Park (UNESCO)Uttarakhand
Askot Musk Deer SanctuaryUttarakhand
Govind Pashu ViharUttarakhand
Kedamath Wildlife SanctuaryUttarakhand
Sundarbans National ParkWest Bengal
Gorumara National ParkWest Bengal
Buxa National ParkWest Bengal
Jaldapara National ParkWest Bengal
Neora Valley National Park— .West Bengal
Singalila National ParkWest Bengal
Mahatma Gandhi Marine National ParkAndaman u0026amp; Nicobar Islands
Rani Jhansi Marine National ParkAndaman u0026amp; Nicobar Islands
Saddle Peak National ParkAndaman u0026amp; Nicobar Islands
Middle Button Island National ParkAndaman u0026amp; Nicobar Islands
South Button Island National ParkAndaman u0026amp;Nicobar Islands
Mount Harriet National ParkAndaman u0026amp;Nicobar Islands
North Button Island National ParkAndaman u0026amp; Nicobar Islands
Campbell Bay National ParkAndaman u0026amp; Nicobar Islands
Galathea National ParkAndaman u0026amp; Nicobar Islands

Biosphere Reserve –

A Biosphere Reserve is a unique and representative ecosystem of terrestrial and coastal areas, which are internationally recognized within the framework of UNESCO’s Man and Biosphere (MAB) Program. There are 18 Biosphere Reserves in India, out of which 9 Biosphere Reserveshave been recognized by the UNESCO on World Network of Biosphere Reserves.

Established in September 1986, the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve is the first biosphere reserves of India India is the only country in the whole world where both tigers and lions are found.

Gir forest in Gujarat is the natural habitat of lion in India.

Tigers are found in the Sundarbans of West Bengal, and the forests of Madhya Pradesh and Himalayan region.

To protect wildlife, the Government of India has established 18 biosphere reserves; (list with details is given below – the data is prepared by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Government of India):

Biosphere Reserves in India

1. Nilgiri Biosphere
Tamil Nadu,Kerala, Karnataka
Nilgiri Tahr, Lion-tailed Macque2. Nandadevi Biosphere
Snow leopard, Himalayan Black Bear

3. Gulf of Mannar 1989

Tamil Nadu
4. Nokrek 
Red Panda
5. Sunderbans 
West Bengal
Royal Bengal Tiger
6. Manas
Asiatic Elephant, Tiger, Hispid hare,
Golden Langur, Pygmy Hog
7. Simplipal
Gaur, Royal Bengal Tiger, Asian Elephant
8. Dihang – Dibang 
Arunachal Pradesh
Mishmi Takin,Musk deer
9. Pachmarhi
Madhya Pradesh
Flying Squirrel, Giant Squirrel
10. Achanakmar -Amarkantak 
Madhya Pradesh,Chattisgarh
Four horned Antelope, Indian Wild dog, White rumped Vulture, Philautus, Sarus Crane
11. Great Rann of Kutch
Indian Wild Ass
12. Cold desert 
Himachal Pradesh
Snow Leopard13. Khangchendzonga 
Sikkim Snow Leopard, Red Panda

14. Agasthyamalai 
Kerala, TamilNadu Nilgiri

Tahr u0026amp; Elephants

15. Great Nicobar

Andaman u0026amp;Nicobar Islands
Salt water Crocodile
16. Dibru – Saikhowa
White winged wood duck, water buffalo, black breasted Parrot bill, tiger, capped langur
17. Seshachalam hills 
Andhra Pradesh

Slender Loris

18. Panna

Madhya Pradesh
Tiger, Chital, Chinkara, Sambhar, Sloth bear
World Network of Biosphere Reserves :
The UNESCO has introduced the designation ‘Biosphere Reserve’ for natural areas to minimize conflict between development and conservation. BRs are nominated by national government which meet a minimal set of criteria .The plant species grown naturally without any human aid and remains undisturbed is known as virgin vegetation.

The virgin vegetation, which are purely originated and grown in India is known as endemic or indigenous species but those which have come from outside India are termed as exotic plants.

Flora simply refers to plant species and Fauna refers to animal species.