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Enzymes and Minerals

Functions of Enzymes in Human Body



Secreted by


Salivary Amylase (Ptyalin)

Salivary Glands

Converts starch to maltose



Converts milk proteins to peptides



Converts other proteins to​​ peptides

Gastric Amylase


Converts starch to maltose


Gastric Lipase



Converts butter fat into fatty acids and glycerol



Converts proteins to peptides



Converts proteins to peptides

Steapsin​​ (Pancreatic Lipase)


Converts fats into fatty acids and glycerol



Converts peptides into amino acid.

Pancreatic Amylase


Converts starch to maltose


Small Intestine

entirokinase​​ activates



trypsinogen to tryspsin.


Small Intestine

Converts polypeptides to amino acids.


Small​​ Intestine

Digests Maltose to​​ glucose.


Small Intestine

Digests sucrose into glucose and fructose.



Small Intestine

Digests lactose into glucose and galactose.


Functions of Minerals in Human Body

  • Calcium​​ (Ca)

Required for the formation of bones and teeth. It is an essential mineral for clotting of blood, and also controls the functions of nerves and muscles.

  • Phosphorus​​ (P)

This mineral is essential component for ATP, DNA, RNA, NAD, NADP, and FAD.So, it has immense role in the molecular level of our cell function. This mineral also helps in the formation of bones and teeth in human body and controls the acid base balance of our body.

  • Iron (Fe)

This mineral plays an important role in the formation of blood haemoglobin and cytochromes. It also helps in the formation of Myoglobin.

  • Sulphur(S)

It is an important mineral of different amino acids. It helps in the formation of coenzyme A.

  • Iodine​​ (I)

It is important for the synthesis of Thyroid hormones like T4 and T3, so indirectly helps in the control of basal metabolic rate.

  • Sodium​​ (Na)

This mineral is strictly required for conduction of nervous impulse. It also​​ helps in balances of water and acid- base in the body, so helps as osmotic controller.

  • Potassium​​ (K)

Like calcium it is also important for the conduction of nerve impulse, and also helps as osmotic controller.

  • Magnesium(Mg)

It has key roles as a cofactor of many enzyme linked physiological processes and ATP dependant metabolic reactions. It also controls neuromuscular functions.

  • Chlorine​​ (Cl)

It is an important mineral of gastric juice that helps in the formation of HCl. It also helps in​​ maintaining of acid- base balance.

Functions of Hormones in Human Body

  • Adrenaline​​ (Epinephrine)

Produced by : Adrenal​​ Glands

To prepare the body for fight or flight response in times of stress. It increases the heart rate, blood pressure, the size of the pupil in the​​ eye.

  • Aldosterone​​ (Electrocortin)

Produced by : Adrenal Glands

It helps to maintain blood pH by regulating blood levels of sodium, potassium and hydrogen.

  • Cortisol​​ (Hydrocortisone)

Produced by : Adrenal Glands

Controls blood sugar levels and​​ salt and water balance, regulates metabolism, influences memory formation etc. Blood levels of cortisol are high in the morning and fall later in the day. In people working at night this pattern gets reversed.

  • Calcitonin​​ (Thyrocalcitonin)

Produced by : Thyroid Gland

It helps in regulating the levels of calcium and phosphate in the blood.

  • Thyroxine​​ (T4)

Produced by : Thyroid Gland

It is inactive and most of it is converted in Triiodothyronine by the kidneys and liver.

  • Triiodothyronine​​ (T3)

Produced by :​​ Thyroid Gland

Most of T3 is converted from T4 by the kidneys and liver. It is the active form of Thyroxine and plays an important role in body’s metabolic rate, heart and digestive functions, muscle control, brain development and the maintenance of bones.

  • Parathyroid​​ Hormone

Produced by : Parathyroid Glands

It regulates the levels of calcium in the blood.

  • Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)​​ (Thyrotropin)

Produced by : Pituitary Gland

It controls production of the thyroid hormones, thyroxine and​​ triiodothyronine.

  • Prolactin

Produced by : Pituitary Gland

Promotes the production of milk. It has several other functions in the body.

  • Somatotropin (Growth​​ Hormone)

Produced by : Pituitary Gland

Promotes growth in children, maintains normal body structure​​ and metabolism in adults.

  • Erythropoietin​​ (EPO)

Produced by : Kidneys

It stimulates bone marrow to increase the production of red blood cells and it also acts on red blood cells to protect them against destruction.

  • Vitamin D​​ (Calcitriol)

Produced by :​​ Kidneys

Only 10% is received from food, the rest being manufactured in the body. Vitamin D is important for the absorption of calcium from food and also for the formation of new bone in children and adults.