Current affairs
Static GK
TISSMAT
TISSNET MOCKS
TISSMAT MOCKS

Natural and Mineral Resources of India

NATURAL​ ​RESOURCES
Introduction
There​ ​are​ ​three​ ​distinct​ ​cropping​ ​seasons​ ​in​ ​the​ ​northern​ ​and​ ​interior​ ​parts​ ​of India,​ ​namely​ ​kharif,​ ​rabi,​ ​and​ ​zaid.
Kharif
(June-September)
Rice,​ ​Cotton,​ ​Bajra,​ ​Maize,
Jowar,​ ​Toor
Rice,​ ​Maize,​ ​Ragi,​ ​Jowar,
Groundnut
Rabi
(October​ ​–​ ​March)
Wheat,​ ​Gram,​ ​Rapeseeds,
and​ ​Mustard,​ ​Barley
Rice,​ ​Maize,​ ​Ragi,
Groundnut,​ ​Jowar
Zaid
(April–June)
Vegetables,​ ​Fruits,​ ​Fodder​ ​Rice,​ ​Vegetables,​ ​Fodder
Dryland​ ​farming​ ​is​ ​largely​ ​restricted​ ​to​ ​the​ ​regions​ ​having​ ​annual​ ​rainfall​ ​less than​ ​75​ ​cm.​ ​Major​ ​crops​ ​are​ ​ragi,​ ​bajra,​ ​moong,​ ​gram,​ ​and​ ​guar​ ​(fodder​ ​crops).The​ ​regions,​ ​which​ ​have​ ​rainfall​ ​in​ ​excess​ ​of​ ​soil​ ​moisture​ ​requirement​ ​of​ ​plants​ ​during​ ​the​ ​rainy season​ ​is​ ​known​ ​as​ ​wetland​ ​farming.​ ​Major​ ​crops​ ​are​ ​rice,​ ​jute,​ ​and​ ​sugarcane.
The​ ​cereals​ ​occupy​ ​about​ ​54%​ ​of​ ​total​ ​cropped​ ​area​ ​in​ ​India. India​ ​produces​ ​about​ ​11%​ ​cereals​ ​of​ ​the​ ​world​ ​and​ ​ranks​ ​3rd​ ​in​ ​production​ ​after
China​ ​and​ ​U.S.A. Indian​ ​cereals​ ​are​ ​classified​ ​as​ ​fine​ ​grains​ ​(e.g.​ ​rice,​ ​wheat,​ ​etc.)​ ​and​ ​coarse grains​ ​(e.g.​ ​jowar,​ ​bajra,​ ​maize,​ ​ragi,​ ​etc.)
Types​ ​of​ ​Farming
On​ ​the​ ​basis​ ​of​ ​main​ ​source​ ​of​ ​moisture​ ​for​ ​crops,​ ​the​ ​farming​ ​can​ ​be​ ​classified​ ​as​ ​​irrigated and​ ​rainfed. On​ ​the​ ​basis​ ​of​ ​adequacy​ ​of​ ​soil​ ​moisture​ ​during​ ​cropping​ ​season,​ ​rainfed​ ​farming​ ​is​ ​further
classified​ ​as​ : ​dryland​ ​and​ ​wetland​ ​farming.
Chief​ ​Crops​ ​and​ ​Producing​ ​States
Cereals  : ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​States.
Wheat​ ​-​ ​Uttar​ ​Pradesh,​ ​Punjab​ ​and​ ​Madhya​ ​Pradesh
Rice​ ​–​ ​West​ ​Bengal​ ​and​ ​Uttar​ ​Pradesh
Gram​ ​–​ ​Madhya​ ​Pradesh​ ​and​ ​Tamil​ ​Nadu
Barley​ ​–​ ​Maharashtra,​ ​Uttar​ ​Pradesh​ ​and​ ​Rajasthan
Bajra​ ​–​ ​Maharashtra,​ ​Gujarat​ ​and​ ​Rajasthan
Cash​ ​Crops
Sugarcane​ ​-​ ​Uttar​ ​Pradesh​ ​and​ ​Maharashtra
Poppy​ ​–​ ​Uttar​ ​Pradesh​ ​and​ ​Himachal​ ​Pradesh
Oil​ ​Seeds
Coconut​ ​–​ ​Kerala​ ​and​ ​Tamil​ ​Nadu
Linseed​ ​–​ ​Rajasthan,​ ​Madhya​ ​Pradesh​ ​and​ ​Haryana
Groundnut​ ​–​ ​Gujarat,​ ​Andhra​ ​Pradesh​ ​and​ ​Tamil​ ​Nadu
Rape​ ​seed​ ​and​ ​mustard​ ​–​ ​Rajasthan,​ ​Madhya​ ​Pradesh​ ​and​ ​Haryana
Sesame​ ​–​ ​Uttar​ ​Pradesh​ ​and​ ​Rajasthan
Sunflower​ ​–​ ​Karnataka,​ ​Andhra​ ​Pradesh​ ​and​ ​Maharashtra
Fibre​ ​Crops
Cotton​ ​–​ ​Maharashtra​ ​and​ ​Gujarat
Jute​ ​–​ ​West​ ​Bengal​ ​and​ ​Bihar
Silk​ ​–​ ​Karnataka​ ​and​ ​Kerala
Plantations
Coffee​ ​–​ ​Karnataka​ ​and​ ​Kerala
Rubber​ ​–​ ​Kerala​ ​and​ ​Karnataka
Tea​ ​–​ ​Assam​ ​and​ ​Kerala
Tobacco​ ​–​ ​Gujarat,​ ​Maharashtra​ ​and​ ​Madhya​ ​Pradesh
Spices
Pepper​ ​–​ ​Kerala,​ ​Karnataka​ ​and​ ​Tamil​ ​Nadu
Cashewnuts​ ​–​ ​Kerala,​ ​Tamil​ ​Nadu​ ​and​ ​Andhra​ ​Pradesh
Ginger​ ​–​ ​Kerala​ ​and​ ​Uttar​ ​Pradesh
Turmeric​ ​–​ ​Andhra​ ​Pradesh​ ​and​ ​Odisha
Agricultural​ ​Problems
​About​ ​57%​ ​of​ ​the​ ​land​ ​is​ ​covered​ ​by​ ​crop​ ​cultivation​ ​in​ ​India;​ ​however,​ ​in​ ​the world,​ ​the​ ​corresponding​ ​share​ ​is​ ​only​ ​about​ ​12%. ​On​ ​the​ ​other​ ​hand,​ ​the​ ​land-human​ ​ratio​ ​in​ ​the​ ​country​ ​is​ ​only​ ​0.31​ ​ha,​ ​which is​ ​almost​ ​half​ ​of​ ​that​ ​of​ ​the​ ​world​ ​as​ ​a​ ​whole​ ​i.e.​ ​0.59​ ​ha.
​However,​ ​major​ ​problems​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Indian​ ​agriculture​ ​system​ ​are:
o​ ​Dependence​ ​on​ ​erratic​ ​monsoon;
o​ ​Low​ ​productivity;
o​ ​Constraints​ ​of​ ​financial​ ​resources​ ​and​ ​indebtedness;
o​ ​Lack​ ​of​ ​proper​ ​land​ ​reforms;
o​ ​Small​ ​farm​ ​size​ ​and​ ​fragmentation​ ​of​ ​landholdings;
o​ ​Lack​ ​of​ ​commercialization;​ ​under-employment;​ ​and
o​ ​Degradation​ ​of​ ​cultivable​ ​land.
​Further,​ ​lack​ ​of​ ​development​ ​of​ ​rural​ ​infrastructure,​ ​withdrawal​ ​of​ ​subsidies​ ​and price​ ​support,​ ​and​ ​impediments​ ​in​ ​availing​ ​of​ ​the​ ​rural​ ​credits​ ​may​ ​lead​ ​to​ ​inter- regional​ ​and​ ​inter-personal​ ​disparities​ ​in​ ​rural​ ​areas.

​Intensive​ ​Agricultural​ ​District​ ​Program​ ​(IADP)​ ​and​ ​Intensive​ ​Agricultural Area​ ​Program​ ​(IAAP)​ ​were​ ​launched​ ​to​ ​overcome​ ​the​ ​agricultural​ ​problems​ ​in India.
Mineral​ ​Reserves
Iron
About​ ​95%​ ​of​ ​total​ ​reserves​ ​of​ ​iron​ ​ore​ ​is​ ​found​ ​in​ ​the​ ​States​ ​of​ ​Odisha,
Jharkhand,​ ​Chhattisgarh,​ ​Karnataka,​ ​Goa,​ ​Telangana,​ ​Andhra​ ​Pradesh,​ ​and​ ​Tamil​ ​Nadu.​Sundergarh,​ ​Mayurbhanj,​ ​and​ ​Jhar​ ​are​ ​the​ ​major​ ​iron​ ​ore​ ​regions​ ​in​ ​Odisha​ ​and​ ​the​ ​important mines​ ​are​ ​Gurumahisani,​ ​Sulaipet,​ ​Badampahar​ ​(Mayurbhaj),​ ​Kiruburu​ ​(Kendujhar),​ ​and​ ​Bonai (Sundergarh).Noamundi​ ​(Poorbi​ ​Singhbhum)​ ​and​ ​Gua​ ​(Pashchimi​ ​Singhbhum)​ ​are​ ​important mines​ ​in​ ​Jharkhand.
Manganese
​Odisha​ ​is​ ​the​ ​leading​ ​producer​ ​of​ ​Manganese.
Bonai,​ ​Kendujhar,​ ​Sundergarh,​ ​Gangpur,​ ​Koraput,​ ​Kalahandi,​ ​and​ ​Bolangir​ ​are
the​ ​major​ ​manganese​ ​regions​ ​in​ ​Odisha. ​Dharwar,​ ​Ballari,​ ​Belagavi,​ ​North​ ​Canara,​ ​Shivamogga,​ ​Chitradurg,​ ​Tumkur,​ ​and Chikkmagaluru​ ​are​ ​major​ ​manganese​ ​regions​ ​in​ ​Karnataka.
Bauxite
​Odisha​ ​is​ ​the​ ​largest​ ​producer​ ​of​ ​Bauxite​ ​in​ ​India.
​Kalahandi,​ ​Sambalpur,​ ​Bolangir,​ ​and​ ​Koraput​ ​are​ ​the​ ​leading​ ​producers​ ​of bauxite​ ​in​ ​Odisha.
​Lohardaga​ ​(Jharkhand)​ ​is​ ​rich​ ​in​ ​bauxite​ ​deposits. Amarkantak​ ​plateau​​ ​has​ ​rich​ ​deposits​ ​of​ ​bauxite​ ​in​ ​Chhattisgarh.
Copper
​Copper​ ​deposits​ ​are​ ​largely​ ​concentrated​ ​in​ ​Singhbhum​ ​district​ ​of​ ​Jharkhand, Balaghat​ ​district​ ​of​ ​Madhya​ ​Pradesh,​ ​and​ ​Jhunjhunu​ ​and​ ​Alwar​ ​districts​ ​of​ ​Rajasthan.
Mica
​Hazaribagh​ ​plateau​ ​of​ ​Jharkhand​ ​and​ ​Nellore​ ​district​ ​of​ ​Andhra​ ​Pradesh​ ​have deposits​ ​of​ ​high​ ​grade​ ​mica.
​Jaipur​ ​to​ ​Bhilwara​ ​and​ ​areas​ ​around​ ​Udaipur​ ​are​ ​the​ ​major​ ​mica-bearing​ ​regions of​ ​Rajasthan.
​​ENERGY​ ​RESOURCES
Coal
​About​ ​80%​ ​of​ ​the​ ​coal​ ​deposits​ ​in​ ​India​ ​is​ ​of​ ​bituminous​ ​type​ ​and​ ​is​ ​of​ ​non-coking​ ​grade.
​The​ ​most​ ​important​ ​Gondwana​ ​coal​ ​fields​ ​of​ ​India​ ​are​ ​located​ ​in​ ​Damodar​ ​Valley region.
Raniganj,​ ​Jharia,​ ​Bokaro,​ ​Giridih,​ ​and​ ​Karanpura​ ​are​ ​major​ ​coalfields​ ​of Jharkhand-Bengal​ ​coal​ ​belt.
Jharia​ ​is​ ​the​ ​largest​ ​coal​ ​field​ ​followed​ ​by​ ​Raniganj.
Petroleum
Petroleum​ ​industries​ ​produce​ ​various​ ​by-products;​ ​for​ ​example,​ ​fertilizer, synthetic​ ​rubber,​ ​synthetic​ ​fiber,​ ​medicines,​ ​vaseline,​ ​lubricants,​ ​wax,​ ​soap,​ ​and cosmetics.
Crude​ ​petroleum​ ​normally​ ​occurs​ ​in​ ​sedimentary​ ​rocks​ ​of​ ​the​ ​tertiary​ ​period. For​ ​the​ ​systematic​ ​oil​ ​exploration​ ​and​ ​production,​ ​the​ ​Oil​ ​and​ ​Natural​ ​Gas​ ​Commission​ ​was​ ​set up​ ​in​ ​1956.
​Digboi,​ ​Naharkatiya,​ ​and​ ​Moran​ ​are​ ​important​ ​oil​ ​producing​ ​areas​ ​in​ ​Assam. Ankaleshwar,​ ​Kalol,​ ​Mehsana,​ ​Nawagam,​ ​Kosamba,​ ​and​ ​Lunej​ ​are​ ​the​ ​major petroleum​ ​producing​ ​regions​ ​in​ ​Gujarat.
​Located​ ​160​ ​km​ ​off​ ​Mumbai,​ ​Mumbai​ ​high,​ ​an​ ​offshore​ ​oilfield​ ​was​ ​discovered​ ​in​ ​1973.
Production​ ​of​ ​petroleum​ ​at​ ​the​ ​field​ ​was​ ​started​ ​in​ ​1976.
Major​ ​crop​ ​Producer​ ​countries
Wheat.
1.​ ​​ ​China
2.​ ​India
3.​ ​Indonesia
Rice
1.​ ​​ ​China
2.​ ​India
3.​ ​Indonesia
Maize
1.​ ​​ ​USA
2.​ ​China
3.​ ​Brazil
TEA
1.​ ​​ ​India
2.​ ​China
3.​ ​Sri​ ​Lanka
4.​ ​Kenya
Coffee
1.​ ​​ ​Brazil
2.​ ​Columbia
3.​ ​Mexico
4.​ ​Indonesia
Sugarcane
1.​ ​​ ​India
2.​ ​Brazil
3.​ ​USA
4.​ ​Cuba
Rubber
1.​ ​​ ​Thailand
2.​ ​Indonesia
3.​ ​Malaysia
Cotton
1.​ ​​ ​China
2.​ ​USA
3.​ ​India
4.​ ​Pakistan
Jute
1.India
2.Bangladesh
Silk
1.​ ​​ ​China
2.​ ​India
3.​ ​Japan
Major​ ​Mineral​ ​Resource​ ​producers
Iron​ ​Ore​​ ​-​ ​China,​ ​Japan,​ ​Russia
Copper​ ​Ore​​ ​-​ ​Chili,​ ​USA,​ ​Indonesia
Tin​ ​-​​ ​China,​ ​Indonesia,​ ​Peru
Lead​​ ​-​ ​China,​ ​Austraila,​ ​USA
Zinc​​ ​-​ ​China,​ ​Australia,​ ​Peru
Manganese​ ​-​​ ​South​ ​Africa,​ ​Brazil,​ ​Australia
Aluminium​​ ​-​ ​China,​ ​Russia,​ ​Canada
Cement​ ​-​​ ​China,​ ​India,​ ​USA
Petroleum​​ ​-​ ​Saudi​ ​Arabia,​ ​Russia,​ ​USA
Natural​ ​Gas​​ ​-​ ​Russia,​ ​USA,​ ​Canada
Silver​​ ​-​ ​Peru,​ ​Mexico,​ ​China
Coal​ ​-​​ ​China,​ ​USA,​ ​India
Uranium-​Kazakhstan,Canada
Gold​-China,Australia,USA,Russia