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Bones and associated Facts

Important Facts about Bones

  • The study of bones is called​​ Osteology.

  • A​​ new​​ born​​ has​​ about​​ 300​​ bones​​ in​​ its​​ body,​​ many​​ of​​ which​​ fuse​​ later​​ in​​ life​​ to​​ form​​ 206​​ bones​​ in​​ an​​ adult.

  • Bones are chiefly made up of Calcium Phosphate and​​ Collagen​​ (a​​ protein).

  • The longest bone in the human body is the​​ Femur or the thigh​​ bone.

  • The smallest bone is located in the ear and known as the​​ stapes.

  • Bones are attached to bones by tough, fibrous tissues known as​​ ligaments

  • The flexible tissue in the​​ interior of bones is known as the​​ bone marrow. Red and white blood cells are produced in the bone​​ marrow.

  • Hyoid​​ bone located at the base of the tongue is the only bone not attached to any other bone in the​​ body.

  • The​​ axial skeleton​​ consists of the bones of​​ the skull, ear, rib cage, verbral column, sternum and the hyoid bone. (total 80​​ bones).

  • The​​ appendicular skeleton​​ consists of all other bones. (total 126​​ bones).

  • Osteoporosis​​ is a progressive bone disease that is characterized by a decrease in bone​​ mass and density which can lead to an increased risk of​​ fracture.

  • Rickets​​ is a disease of the bones in children who develop soft bones due to deficiency of Vitamin​​ D.

  • Arthritis​​ is a form of joint disorder that involves inflammation of one or more​​ joints.

  • Gout​​ is a type of arthritis where swelling and severe pain develops in joints, especially at the base of the big toe.

  • Calcium​​ is​​ an​​ important​​ nutrient​​ for​​ building​​ bones​​ and​​ slowing​​ the​​ pace​​ of​​ bone​​ loss.​​ Vitamin​​ D​​ helps​​ the body absorb​​ calcium.

Bones in​​ Human Body

Groups of Bones in Human Body

 

Group

Number of Bones

Total

Skull

 

22

Vertebral Column

[Cervical Vertebrae - 7 ; Thoracic/dorsal Vertebrae - 12

Lumbar Vertebrae - 5 ; Sacral Vertebrae - 1 ; Coccygeal Vertebrae - 1]

26

Ribs

 

24

Finger​​ bones or Phalanges

14 (in each hand)

28

Toe bones or Phalanges

14 (in each foot)

28

Wrist bones or Carpals

8 (in each wrist)

16

Ankle bones or Tarsals

7 (in each ankle)

14

Metacarpals

5

10

Metatarsals

5

10

Ears

3

6

Total number of bones in​​ groups

184

 

Single Bones in Human Body

 

Name

Location

Sternum

Chest

Hyoid

Neck

Total number of single bones - 2

 

Pairs of Bones in Human Body

 

Name

Location

Name

Location

1. Scapula

Shoulder

6. Fibula

Leg

2. Clavicle

Collar

7. Humerus

Upper arm

3. Patella

Knee

8. Ulna

Lower arm

4. Femur

Thigh

9. Radius

Lower arm

5. Tibia

Leg

10. Pelvic bone

Hips

Total number of pairs of bones - 20

 

Types of Bones and Joints

Types of Bones in Human Body

 

Type

Example

Long Bone

Ulna, Radius, Humerus,​​ Femur, Tibia, Fibula

Short Bone

Wrist and ankle bones

Flat Bone

Skull bones

Sesamoid Bone

Patella

Irregular Bone

Pelvic bones, Bones of the spine

 

Types of Joints in Human Body

 

Type

Example

Ball and Socket Joint

Shoulder and Hips

Hinge Joint

Knee and Elbow

Pivot Joint

Neck

Ellipsoidal Joint

Base of the Index finger

Saddle Joint

Base of the Thumb

Gliding Joint

Wrists and Ankles