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Types of Agriculture and Irrigation

Agriculture and Related fields

TypeRelated to
AgricultureCultivation of the soil and rearing of animals
HorticultureCultivation of fruits, vegetables, flowers, nuts, ornamental plants
FloricultureCultivation of flowers
ArboricultureCultivation of trees and shrubs
ApicultureBee keeping
AquacultureCultivation or rearing of aquatic plants and animals
AvicultureRearing of birds


PiscicultureRearing of fish
PomicultureGrowing of fruits
SericultureBreeding of silkworms
Viniculture/ViticultureCultivation of grapevines

Types of Irrigation

1.Surface Irrigation

Application of water by gravity flow to the surface of the field. Types of of surface irrigation – Basin, Furrow and Border.

(a.) Basin Irrigation

Flat areas of land are surrounded by low bunds to create basins which are then flooded by water. Rice is commonly irrigated this way.

(b.) Furrow Irrigation

Small channels called furrows carry water down the land slope between the crop rows. Water infiltrates into the soil as it moves along the slope. Row crops such as maize, sunflower, sugarcane, soybean and also crops which would get damaged by basin irrigation like tomatoes, vegetables, potatoes, beans; fruit trees such as citrus, grape etc.

(c.) Border Irrigation

Borders are long, sloping strips of land separated by bunds. Water flows down the slope of the border, guided by the bunds on either side. Close growing crops such as pasture or alfalfa.

2. Sprinkler Irrigation

Water is pumped through a pipe system and then sprayed onto the crops through rotating sprinkler heads. Not suitable for delicate crops such as lettuce.

3. Drip Irrigation

Water is conveyed under pressure through a pipe system to the fields, where it drips slowly onto the soil through emitters or drippers which are located close to the plants. Suitable for all row crops but only high value crops are irrigated this way because of cost involved.