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Diseases

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NEW DISEASES:

  • Leishmaniasis :​​ Parasitic infection, historically “Aleppo boil”, by bite of sand fly, common in​​ Europe

  • Rift valley fever​​ :​​ mosquitoes, in​​ Africa

  • Oropouche​​ :​​ mosquitoes (celux), Latin​​ America

  • Mayaro :​​ like chikungunya, by Aedes mosquitoes, title: ‘the next zika’, zika caused by aedes​​ mosquitoes,​​ 1st​​ ​​ in​​ ahmedabad​​ in​​ india.

 

National Health insurance schemes:

  • Rashtiya Swasthiya Bima Yojana (RSBY)

RSBY​​ - launched by Ministry of Labour and Employment, Government of India to provide health insurance coverage for Below Poverty Line (BPL) families.

Objective​​ - to provide protection to BPL households from financial liabilities arising out of health shocks that involve hospitalization. Beneficiaries under RSBY are entitled to hospitalization coverage up to Rs. 30,000. There is no age limit. Coverage extends to five members of the family. Beneficiaries need to pay only Rs. 30/- as registration fee.

  • Aam​​ Aadmi Bima​​ Yojana(AABY)

launched on 2nd October, 2007. The head of the family or one earning member in the family of such a household is covered under the scheme. The premium of Rs.200/- per person per annum is shared equally by the Central Government and the State​​ Government. The member to be covered should be aged between 18 and 59 years.

  • The National Rural Health​​ Mission

Now under National Health Mission is an initiative undertaken by the government of India to address the health needs of under-served rural areas.

Launch year:​​ 2005 by​​ Narendra Modi

Ministry​​ :​​ Ministry of Health and Family Welfare

  • Mission​​ Indradhanush:

Launched by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India on​​ December 25, 2014. The Mission Indradhanush aims to cover all those children by 2020 who are either unvaccinated, or are partially vaccinated against vaccine preventable diseases. India’s Universal Immunisation Programme (UIP) provide free vaccinesto all children across the country against diseases Tuberculosis, Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Polio, Hepatitis B, Pneumonia and Meningitis.

  • Janani Shishu Suraksha Karyakaram​​ (JSSK):

On 1st June, 2011. The scheme is to benefit pregnant women who access Government health facilities for their delivery. The entitlements include​​ free drugs and consumables, free diet up to 3 days during normal delivery and up to 7 days for C-section, free diagnostics, and free blood wherever required.

  • Universal Health Insurance Scheme​​ (UHIS)

The scheme provides for reimbursement of medical expenses​​ upto Rs. 30,000 to the entire family, death cpover due to an accident Rs.25,000 to the earing head of the family and​​ compensation due to loss of earning of the earning member Rs. 50 per day upto maximum of 15 days. The UHIS has been redesigned targeting only the BPL families. The premium subsidy has been enhanced from Rs. 100 to Rs. 200 for an individual, Rs. 300 for a family of five and Rs. 400 for a family of seven.

Vaccines for children:

 

Chickenpox (varicella; Var)

2 doses of chickenpox vaccine. The first dose at 12–15 months and the second at 4–6 years.

 

 

Diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough (pertussis; DTaP)

5 doses of DTaP vaccine.​​ The first dose is given at 2 months, the second at 4 months, the third at 6 months, the fourth at 15–18 months, and the fifth at 4–6 years.

Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)

3–4 doses of Hib​​ vaccine

. The

first dose is given at 2 months,

the second at 4 months, the third at 6 months (if needed), and the last at 12–15 months.

 

Hepatitis A (HepA)

2 doses of hepatitis A vaccine. The first dose is given at age 1 year and the second 6–12 months later.

Hepatitis B (HepB)

3–4 doses of hepatitis B

 

vaccine. The first dose is given

at birth, the second at 1–2 months, the third at 4 months (if needed), and the last at 6– 18 months.

 

 

Influenza (Flu)

Everyone age 6 months and older needs influenza vaccination every fall or winter and for the rest of their lives. Some children younger​​ than age 9 years need 2 doses.

Measles, mumps, rubella​​ (MMR)

2 doses of MMR​​ vaccine

. The

first dose is given at 12–15

months and the second at 4–6 years. I

Types of Diseases

  • Congenital​​ diseases

Examples : Hare lip, club foot, mongolism, spastic paraplegia

  • Hereditary​​ diseases

Examples : Haemophilia,​​ albinism

  • Dietary deficiency​​ diseases

Examples : Scurvy, rickets, beri-beri, anaemia

  • Hormonal​​ diseases

Examples : Goitre, diabetes mellitus, acromegaly, dwarfism

  • Infectious diseases​​ (VIRAL)

Examples : AIDS, chicken pox, common cold, german measles, influenza, jaundice, measles, mumps, poliomyelitis, rabies, dengue fever, lassa fever

  • Infectious diseases​​ (BACTERIAL)

Examples : cholera, whooping cough, diptheria, gonorrhoea, leprosy, pneumonia, syphilis, tetanus, typhoid, tuberculosis, plague

  • Infectious diseases​​ (FUNGAL)

Examples : ringworm, atheletes’ foot, thrush

  • Infectious diseases​​ (PROTOZOAN)

Examples : malaria, amoebic dysentery, sleeping sickness, kala-azar

  • Infectious diseases​​ (WORMS)

Examples : filaria, tapeworm, pinworm

  • Degenerative​​ diseases

Examples : graying of hair, baldness, presbyopia, cataract, osteoarthritis, Parkinson’s disease, arteriosclerosis

  • Immunological​​ diseases

Examples : hay fever, asthma, rheumatoid, arthritis, nettle rash

  • Neoplastic​​ diseases

Examples : warts, moles, cancer

Organisms causing Diseases

 

Organism

Disease caused

Vibrio cholerae

Cholera

Salmonella typhi

Typhoid

Salmonella paratyphi

Paratyphoid

Plasmodium

Malaria

Varicella zoster

Chicken Pox

Rubeola (virus)

Measles

Rubella (virus)

German Measles

Bordetella pertussis

Whooping Cough

Cornebacterium diphtheriae

Diphtheria

Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Gonorrhea

Mycobacterium leprae

Leprosy

Treponema pallidum

Syphillis

Clostridium tetani

Tetanus

Mycoplasma pneumoniae

Pneumonia

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Tuberculosis

Yersinia Pestis

Plague

Trychophyton rubrum

Ringworm, Athlete's foot

Trypanosoma brucei

Sleeping sickness

Leishmania

Kala Azar

Leptospira

Leptospirosis

H1N1

Swine Flu

H5N1

Avian Influenza (Bird flu)

 

 

Deficiency Diseases/Conditions

 

Name of the disease

Linked with the deficiency of

Night Blindness

Vitamin A

Beri Beri

Vitamin B

Scurvy

Vitamin C

Rickets

Vitamin D

Sterility

Vitamin E

Impaired blood clotting

Vitamin K

Anaemia

Iron

Osteoporosis

Calcium

Goitre

Iodine

Kwashiorkor

Protein

Xeropthlamia

Vitamin A

Hypokalemia

Potassium

Hyponatremia

Sodium

Hypomagnesemia

Magnesium

Pellagra

Niacin

 

Common and Alternative Names of Diseases

 

Heart Attack

Myocardial infarction

Rabies

Hydrophobia

Blood Cancer

Leukemia

Baldness

Alopecia

Whooping Cough

Pertussis

Short-sight

Myopia

Long-sight

Hypermetropia

Night blindness

Nyctalopia

Rabbit fever

Tularemia

Colour-blindness

Achromatopsia

Lazy eye

Amblyopia

Chicken pox

Varicella

Plague

Black death

Tetanus

Lockjaw

German measles

Rubella

Mumps

Parotitis

Athlete's Foot

Tinea Pedis

Kala Azar, Black Fever, Dumdum Fever

Visceral leishmaniasis

Sleeping Sickness

Human African trypanosomiasis

 

Diseases and body parts affected

 

Disease

Body part affected

Glaucoma

Eyes

Trachoma

Eyes

Scurvy

Gums

Rickets

Bones

Malaria

Spleen

Typhoid

Intestine

Goitre

Thyroid

Gingivitis

Gums

Grave's Diseases

Thyroid

Jaundice

Liver

Tetanus

Skeletal Muscles

Alzheimer's Disease

Brain

Arthritis

Joints

Colitis

Colon

Diphtheria

Respiratory tract

Otitis

Ears

Psoriasis

Skin

Vitiligo

Skin

Leprosy

Skin and Peripheral nerves

 

Poisoning Diseases

 

Name of the disease

Poisoning effect of

Plumbism

Lead

Itai Itai

Cadmium

Mad Hatter's Disease

Mercury

Minamata Disease

Mercury

Byssinosis (Brown Lung disease)

Cotton Dust

Mesothelioma

Asbestos

White Lung disease

Asbestos

Black Lung disease

Coal dust

Silicosis

Silica Dust

Siderosis

Iron Dust

Minamata Disease was so named because it was first discovered in Minamata city of Japan.

 

Diseases transmitted by Animals

 

Animal/Bird/Insect

Disease

Tsetse fly

Sleeping Sickness

Sand fly

Kala Azar

Anopheles mosquito

Malaria

Rodents

Bubonic Plague

Rodents

Leptospirosis

Rodents

Hantavirus Syndromes

Dogs

Rabies

Animals in general

Anthrax

Rabbits

Tularemia

Poultry

Avian Influenza or Bird Flu

Pigs (through Culex mosquitoes)

Japanese Encephalitis

Mosquito

Dengue, West Nile Fever, Yellow Fever

Ticks

Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever, Lyme

Fruit bats

Nipah virus infection

Note: Diseases which can be transmitted from animals to humans and vice-versa are called zoonotic diseases.

 

Rare Disorders/Conditions

  • Parkinson's​​ Disease

It is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that impairs motor skills, cognitive processes, and other functions.

  • Alzheimer's​​ Disease

It is form of dementia characterised by loss of memory, thinking, and changes in behavior.

  • Down's​​ Syndrome

Also called Trisomy 21, it is a condition in which extra genetic material causes delays in the way a child develops, both mentally and physically.

  • Korsakoff's​​ Syndrome

It is a neurological disorder caused by the lack of thiamine (vitamin B1) in the brain.

  • Bulimia

It is an eating disorder characterized by restraining of food intake for a period of time followed by an over intake or binging period that results in feelings of guilt and low self-esteem.

  • Anorexia

It is an eating disorder characterized by refusal to maintain a healthy body weight and an obsessive fear of gaining weight, often coupled with a distorted self image

  • Progeria

It is an extremely rare genetic condition wherein symptoms resembling aspects of aging are manifested at an early age.

  • Dyslexia

It is a developmental reading disorder resulting from the inability to process graphic symbols.

Hormone related Diseases

  • Graves​​ Disease

Named after Robert Graves, the doctor who first described it, is an autoimmune thyroid disease where the​​ thyroid gland​​ is stimulated by autoantibodies which make it overactive, resulting in increased thyroid hormone production.

  • Addison's​​ Disease

Addison's disease is caused by damage to the adrenal glands which make hormones to control the body’s response to stress and balance body salt and water.

  • Diabetes​​ Mellitus

It is common condition in which the body is unable to produce enough of hormone insulin resulting in high levels of sugar in bloodstream.

  • Acromegaly

It is a condition caused by the overproduction of growth hormone. It leads to an increase in size of the hands and feet, thickening of the skin and a change in the appearance of the face..

  • Cushing's Syndrome

Caused due to excess production of hormone Cortisol or by taking excess steroid medication to treat conditions like asthma, eczema etc.

Doctors and their Specialisations

 

Doctor

Specialisation

Neurologist

Nervous system

Nephrologist

Kidney

Endocrinologist

Endocrine glands

Gastroenterologist

Digestive system

Hepatologist

Liver, pancrease and biliary tree

Haemotologist

Blood

Rheumatologist

Joints, muscles and bones

Pulmonologist

Respiratory tract

Ophthalmologist

Eyes

Oncologist

Cancer

Dermatologist

Skin

Gerontologist

Aged persons

Pediatrician

Infants and children

Podiatrist

Feet

 

Types of Medicines

 

Aphetamine

Medicine used to increase energy and reduce appetite

Anabolic steroid

Medicine used to increase muscles to improve performance in sports etc.

Antibiotic

Medicine used to cure bacterial infections

Beta-blocker

Medicine used to make the heart work more slowly

Decongestant

Medicine that helps one to breathe more easily during lung infections

Diuretics

Medicine to increase the discharge of urine

Expectorant

Medicine which helps in expulsion of mucus from the lungs

Laxative

Medicine to provide relief in constipation

Statin

Medicine used to reduce the amount of cholesterol in the blood

Tranquiliser

Medicine to reduce anxiety and bring about calmness

Antacid

Medicine to counteract stomach acidity

Antihelmenthic

Medicine used to expel parasitic worms from the body

 

Commonly used Drugs

 

Characteristic

Drug Name

The drug commonly used for treatment of fever and as a painkiller

Paracetamol

The drug commonly used for treatment of asthma

Salbutamol

The drug commonly used to treat cold and allergy symptoms of sneezing, itching, watery eyes, or runny nose.

 

Cetirizine

The drug commonly used to treat viral infections especially swine flu (H1N1)

Oseltamivir (Tamiflu)

The drug commonly used to prevent and treat malaria

Chloroquine

Some other drugs to be remembered

An anti-inflammatory drug given to animals, which is causing the death of vultures feeding on the dead bodies of such animals. (However, the drug is commonly prescribed to human beings.

 

Diclofenac

A common pesticide which is banned in many western countries but continues to be used in India. It kills harmless insects thus

Endosulfan

affecting the food of the birds and the environment in general

 

The drug which is popularly known as 'Go Pill' and used by pilots to enhance their performance in long duration operations to overcome sleep deprivation and resultant fatigue

 

Modafinil

The pain-killer which is banned in many countries due to its liver toxicity (In India it is banned for use by children).

Nimesulide

The banned drug usually given to cows and buffaloes to enhance their milk output

Oxytocin

The drug commonly sold under the brand name 'Viagra'

Sildenafil citrate

Common and Scientific Names of Vitamins

 

Form/Scientific Name

Common Name

Retinol

Vitamin A

Thiamine

Vitamin B1

Riboflavine

Vitamin B2

Pantothenic Acid

Vitamin B5

Pyridoxine

Vitamin B6

Niacin or Nicotinic Acid

Vitamin B3

Biotin

Vitamin B7

Folic Acid

Vitamin B9

Cobalamin

Vitamin B12

Ascorbic Acid

Vitamin C

Calciferol

Vitamin D

Tocopherol

Vitamin E

Phytomenadione

Vitamin K

Important Standards of Human Health

 

Phenomenon

Standard Range

Pulse rate

72 pulses/min

Blood Pressure

Systolic – <120 mmHg Diastolic – <80 mmHg

Body Mass Index (BMI) or Quetelet index

20 to 25

below 20 – underweight above 25 – overweight

Body temperature

37°C (98.6°F)

pH level of human blood

7.35 to 7.45

Eyesight

6/6

Normal Cholesterol level

below 200mg/dL

Normal Haemoglobin level

Males – 13.8 to 17.2 gms/dL

Females – 12 to 15 gm/dL

Abbreviations - Medical

  • ADD - Attention Deficit​​ Disorder

  • BMI - Body Mass​​ Index

  • COPD - Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary​​ Disease

  • CT (as in CT Scan) - Computerised​​ Tomography

  • CABG - Coronary Artery Bypass​​ Graft

  • CAT - Computerized Axial​​ Tomography

  • DNA - Deoxyribo Nucleic​​ Acid

  • D & C - Dilation and​​ Curettage

  • DPT - Diphtheria, Pertussis,​​ Tetanus

  • ECG -​​ Electrocardiogram

  • ELISA - Enzyme-linked immunosorbent​​ assay

  • FDA - Food and Drug​​ Administration

  • Hb -​​ Haemoglobin

  • ICU - Intensive Care​​ Unit

  • LDL - Low Density​​ Lipoproteins

  • MMR - Measles, Mumps,​​ Rubella

  • MRI - Magnetic Resonance​​ Imaging

  • NAD - No Apparent​​ Distress

  • PUFA - Poly Unsaturated Fatty​​ Acid

  • q.d - Every​​ day

  • q.i.d. - Four times a​​ day

  • t.i.d. - Three times a​​ day

  • b.i.d - Twice a​​ day

  • h.s. - At bedtime (Latin - hora​​ somni)

  • Rx -​​ Prescription

  • RBC - Red Blood​​ Cells

  • WBC - White Blood​​ Cells

  • Crispr - Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic​​ repeats