Leishmaniasis : Parasitic infection, historically “Aleppo boil”, by bite of sand fly, common in Europe
Rift valley fever : mosquitoes, in Africa
Oropouche : mosquitoes (celux), Latin America
Mayaro : like chikungunya, by Aedes mosquitoes, title: ‘the next zika’, zika caused by aedes mosquitoes, 1st in ahmedabad in india.
Rashtiya Swasthiya Bima Yojana (RSBY)
RSBY - launched by Ministry of Labour and Employment, Government of India to provide health insurance coverage for Below Poverty Line (BPL) families.
Objective - to provide protection to BPL households from financial liabilities arising out of health shocks that involve hospitalization. Beneficiaries under RSBY are entitled to hospitalization coverage up to Rs. 30,000. There is no age limit. Coverage extends to five members of the family. Beneficiaries need to pay only Rs. 30/- as registration fee.
Aam Aadmi Bima Yojana(AABY)
launched on 2nd October, 2007. The head of the family or one earning member in the family of such a household is covered under the scheme. The premium of Rs.200/- per person per annum is shared equally by the Central Government and the State Government. The member to be covered should be aged between 18 and 59 years.
The National Rural Health Mission
Now under National Health Mission is an initiative undertaken by the government of India to address the health needs of under-served rural areas.
Launched by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India on December 25, 2014. The Mission Indradhanush aims to cover all those children by 2020 who are either unvaccinated, or are partially vaccinated against vaccine preventable diseases. India’s Universal Immunisation Programme (UIP) provide free vaccinesto all children across the country against diseases Tuberculosis, Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Polio, Hepatitis B, Pneumonia and Meningitis.
Janani Shishu Suraksha Karyakaram (JSSK):
On 1st June, 2011. The scheme is to benefit pregnant women who access Government health facilities for their delivery. The entitlements include free drugs and consumables, free diet up to 3 days during normal delivery and up to 7 days for C-section, free diagnostics, and free blood wherever required.
Universal Health Insurance Scheme (UHIS)
The scheme provides for reimbursement of medical expenses upto Rs. 30,000 to the entire family, death cpover due to an accident Rs.25,000 to the earing head of the family and compensation due to loss of earning of the earning member Rs. 50 per day upto maximum of 15 days. The UHIS has been redesigned targeting only the BPL families. The premium subsidy has been enhanced from Rs. 100 to Rs. 200 for an individual, Rs. 300 for a family of five and Rs. 400 for a family of seven.
Chickenpox (varicella; Var)
2 doses of chickenpox vaccine. The first dose at 12–15 months and the second at 4–6 years.
Diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough (pertussis; DTaP)
5 doses of DTaP vaccine. The first dose is given at 2 months, the second at 4 months, the third at 6 months, the fourth at 15–18 months, and the fifth at 4–6 years.
Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)
3–4 doses of Hib vaccine
first dose is given at 2 months,
the second at 4 months, the third at 6 months (if needed), and the last at 12–15 months.
Hepatitis A (HepA)
2 doses of hepatitis A vaccine. The first dose is given at age 1 year and the second 6–12 months later.
Hepatitis B (HepB)
3–4 doses of hepatitis B
vaccine. The first dose is given
at birth, the second at 1–2 months, the third at 4 months (if needed), and the last at 6– 18 months.
Everyone age 6 months and older needs influenza vaccination every fall or winter and for the rest of their lives. Some children younger than age 9 years need 2 doses.
Measles, mumps, rubella (MMR)
2 doses of MMR vaccine
first dose is given at 12–15
months and the second at 4–6 years. I
Types of Diseases
Examples : Hare lip, club foot, mongolism, spastic paraplegia
Examples : Haemophilia, albinism
Dietary deficiency diseases
Examples : Scurvy, rickets, beri-beri, anaemia
Examples : Goitre, diabetes mellitus, acromegaly, dwarfism
Infectious diseases (VIRAL)
Examples : AIDS, chicken pox, common cold, german measles, influenza, jaundice, measles, mumps, poliomyelitis, rabies, dengue fever, lassa fever
Infectious diseases (BACTERIAL)
Examples : cholera, whooping cough, diptheria, gonorrhoea, leprosy, pneumonia, syphilis, tetanus, typhoid, tuberculosis, plague
Infectious diseases (FUNGAL)
Examples : ringworm, atheletes’ foot, thrush
Infectious diseases (PROTOZOAN)
Examples : malaria, amoebic dysentery, sleeping sickness, kala-azar
Infectious diseases (WORMS)
Examples : filaria, tapeworm, pinworm
Examples : graying of hair, baldness, presbyopia, cataract, osteoarthritis, Parkinson’s disease, arteriosclerosis
Examples : hay fever, asthma, rheumatoid, arthritis, nettle rash
Examples : warts, moles, cancer
Ringworm, Athlete's foot
Avian Influenza (Bird flu)
Name of the disease
Linked with the deficiency of
Impaired blood clotting
Common and Alternative Names of Diseases
Kala Azar, Black Fever, Dumdum Fever
Human African trypanosomiasis
Diseases and body parts affected
Body part affected
Skin and Peripheral nerves
Name of the disease
Poisoning effect of
Mad Hatter's Disease
Byssinosis (Brown Lung disease)
White Lung disease
Black Lung disease
Minamata Disease was so named because it was first discovered in Minamata city of Japan.
Diseases transmitted by Animals
Animals in general
Avian Influenza or Bird Flu
Pigs (through Culex mosquitoes)
Dengue, West Nile Fever, Yellow Fever
Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever, Lyme
Nipah virus infection
Note: Diseases which can be transmitted from animals to humans and vice-versa are called zoonotic diseases.
It is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that impairs motor skills, cognitive processes, and other functions.
It is form of dementia characterised by loss of memory, thinking, and changes in behavior.
Also called Trisomy 21, it is a condition in which extra genetic material causes delays in the way a child develops, both mentally and physically.
It is a neurological disorder caused by the lack of thiamine (vitamin B1) in the brain.
It is an eating disorder characterized by restraining of food intake for a period of time followed by an over intake or binging period that results in feelings of guilt and low self-esteem.
It is an eating disorder characterized by refusal to maintain a healthy body weight and an obsessive fear of gaining weight, often coupled with a distorted self image
It is an extremely rare genetic condition wherein symptoms resembling aspects of aging are manifested at an early age.
It is a developmental reading disorder resulting from the inability to process graphic symbols.
Named after Robert Graves, the doctor who first described it, is an autoimmune thyroid disease where the thyroid gland is stimulated by autoantibodies which make it overactive, resulting in increased thyroid hormone production.
Addison's disease is caused by damage to the adrenal glands which make hormones to control the body’s response to stress and balance body salt and water.
It is common condition in which the body is unable to produce enough of hormone insulin resulting in high levels of sugar in bloodstream.
It is a condition caused by the overproduction of growth hormone. It leads to an increase in size of the hands and feet, thickening of the skin and a change in the appearance of the face..
Caused due to excess production of hormone Cortisol or by taking excess steroid medication to treat conditions like asthma, eczema etc.
Liver, pancrease and biliary tree
Joints, muscles and bones
Infants and children
Types of Medicines
Medicine used to increase energy and reduce appetite
Medicine used to increase muscles to improve performance in sports etc.
Medicine used to cure bacterial infections
Medicine used to make the heart work more slowly
Medicine that helps one to breathe more easily during lung infections
Medicine to increase the discharge of urine
Medicine which helps in expulsion of mucus from the lungs
Medicine to provide relief in constipation
Medicine used to reduce the amount of cholesterol in the blood
Medicine to reduce anxiety and bring about calmness
Medicine to counteract stomach acidity
Medicine used to expel parasitic worms from the body
Commonly used Drugs
The drug commonly used for treatment of fever and as a painkiller
The drug commonly used for treatment of asthma
The drug commonly used to treat cold and allergy symptoms of sneezing, itching, watery eyes, or runny nose.
The drug commonly used to treat viral infections especially swine flu (H1N1)
The drug commonly used to prevent and treat malaria
Some other drugs to be remembered
An anti-inflammatory drug given to animals, which is causing the death of vultures feeding on the dead bodies of such animals. (However, the drug is commonly prescribed to human beings.
A common pesticide which is banned in many western countries but continues to be used in India. It kills harmless insects thus
affecting the food of the birds and the environment in general
The drug which is popularly known as 'Go Pill' and used by pilots to enhance their performance in long duration operations to overcome sleep deprivation and resultant fatigue
The pain-killer which is banned in many countries due to its liver toxicity (In India it is banned for use by children).
The banned drug usually given to cows and buffaloes to enhance their milk output
The drug commonly sold under the brand name 'Viagra'
Common and Scientific Names of Vitamins
Niacin or Nicotinic Acid
Important Standards of Human Health
Systolic – <120 mmHg Diastolic – <80 mmHg
Body Mass Index (BMI) or Quetelet index
20 to 25
below 20 – underweight above 25 – overweight
pH level of human blood
7.35 to 7.45
Normal Cholesterol level
Normal Haemoglobin level
Males – 13.8 to 17.2 gms/dL
Females – 12 to 15 gm/dL
Abbreviations - Medical
ADD - Attention Deficit Disorder
BMI - Body Mass Index
COPD - Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
CT (as in CT Scan) - Computerised Tomography
CABG - Coronary Artery Bypass Graft
CAT - Computerized Axial Tomography
DNA - Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid
D & C - Dilation and Curettage
DPT - Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus
ECG - Electrocardiogram
ELISA - Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
FDA - Food and Drug Administration
Hb - Haemoglobin
ICU - Intensive Care Unit
LDL - Low Density Lipoproteins
MMR - Measles, Mumps, Rubella
MRI - Magnetic Resonance Imaging
NAD - No Apparent Distress
PUFA - Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acid
q.d - Every day
q.i.d. - Four times a day
t.i.d. - Three times a day
b.i.d - Twice a day
h.s. - At bedtime (Latin - hora somni)
Rx - Prescription
RBC - Red Blood Cells
WBC - White Blood Cells
Crispr - Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats