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India Independence Struggle

Famous Leaders of the revolt
Delhi- The leadership at Delhi was nominally in the hands of Bahadur Shah. But real power lied with general
Bakht Khan who had led the revolt of Bareilly troops and brought them to Delhi.

Kanpur – At Kanpur the revolt was led by Nana Saheb and in his efforts against the British was ably supported
by two of his lieutenants one was Tantia Tope, the other was Azimullah.

Lucknow- The principal person responsible for the revolt in Lucknow was Begum Hazrat Mahal of Awadh
(declared her son as the Nawab of Awadh).

Bihar- Kunwar Singh and Amar Singh (Bihar).

Jhansi – Rani Lakshmi Bai of Jhansi, the widowed queen of Gangadhar Rao played a heroic role in this revolt.


• Allan Octavian Hume, a retired civil servant in the British Government took the initiative to form an allIndia organization.
• Thus, the Indian National Congress was founded and its first session was held at Bombay in 1885.
Important Sessions of Indian National Congress
• The first session was held from 28–31 December 1885 in Mumbai, and was attended by 72 delegates.
• Mahatma Gandhi presided over the Belgaum session of INC in 1924.
• The first woman president of INC was Mrs Annie Besant.
• The first Indian woman president of the INC was Mrs Sarojini Naidu.
• The first Muslim president of the INC was Badruddin Tayabji.
• The president of INC at the time of India’s independence was Acharya JB Kriplani.

• The important extremist leaders were Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal and Aurobindo Ghosh.

• Lord Curzon announced the partition of Bengal.

Swadeshi Movement (1905)
• Against the bengal partition.
• This made the British reverse the partition of Bengal and unite it in 1911.

Formation of Muslim League (1906)
• Founded by Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Aga Khan III, Khwaja Salimullah

Surat Session (1907)
• The INC split into two groups -The extremists and The moderates, at the Surat session in 1907.

• Introduced separate electorates for the Muslims.
Annulment of Bengal Partition (1911)

Ghadar Party of India in (1913)
• Formed by Lala Hardayal, Taraknath Das and Sohan Singh Bhakna.
• HQ was at San Francisco.

Komagata Maru Incident (1914)
• Komagata Maru was the name of a ship which was carrying 370 passengers, mainly Sikh and Punjabi
Muslim would-be immigrants, from Singapore to Vancouver.
• The ship finally reached at Calcutta in September 1914 but the inmates refused to board the Punjabbound train.
• In the ensuing with the police near Calcutta, 22 persons died.

Lucknow Session (1916)
• Moderates and Extremists were united again
• In this session the Congress and the Muslim League came closer to each other and they signed the historic Lucknow Pact.

Home Rule League Movement 1916
• Annie Besant, the Irish theosophist, had decided of a movement for Home Rule on the lines of the Irish Home Rule Leagues

Emergence of Gandhi in India
• M K Gandhi returned from South Africa (where he had lived for more than 20 years) to India in 1915.

Champaran Satyagraha (1917)
• The first civil disobedience movement by Gandhi in the freedom struggle.
• Persuaded by Rajkumar Shukla, an indigo cultivator, Gandhi went to Champaran in Bihar to investigate the conditions of the farmers there.

Kheda Satyagraha (1918)
• Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, under Gandhi’s guidance, led the farmers in protest against the collection of taxes in the wake of the famine.Ahmedabad

Mill Strike (1918)

Rowlatt Act (1919)
• As per this Act, any person could be arrested on the basis of suspicion.
• No appeal or petition could be filed against such arrests.

Jallianwala Bagh Massacre (13 April, 1919)
• On 13 th April, the Baisakhi day (harvest festival), a public meeting was organized at the Jallianwala Bagh (garden)
• General Dyer marched in and without any warning opened fire on the crowd.

Khilafat Movement (1920)
• The chief cause of the Khilafat Movement was the defeat of Turkey in the First World War.
• The whole movement was based on the Muslim belief that the Caliph (the Sultan of Turkey) was the
religious head of the Muslims all over the world
• The Khilafat Movement merged with the Non-Cooperation Movement launched by Mahatma Gandhi in1920:

Non-Cooperation Movement (1920-1922)
• It was approved by the INC at the Nagpur session in December, 1920.
• But the whole movement was abruptly called off on 11th February 1922 by Gandhi following the ChuriChaura incident

Swaraj Party
• The suspension of the Non-Cooperation Movement led to a split within Congress in the Gaya session of the Congress in December 1922.
• Leaders like Motilal Nehru and Chittranjan Das formed a separate group within the Congress known as the Swaraj Party on 1 January 1923.

Simon Commission (1927)
• In November 1927 the British Government appointed the Simon Commission to look into the working of the Government of India Act of 1919 and to suggest changes.
• The Commission consisted of Englishmen without a single Indian representative.

Nehru Report (1928)
Civil Disobedience Movement (1930-1934)
• In lahore session 1929 presided over by Jawaharlal Nehru the Congress passed the Poorna Swaraj resolution
• Moreover, as the government failed to accept the Nehru Report, the Congress gave a call to launch the

Civil Disobedience Movement.
The Dandi March (1930)
• On 12th March 1930, Gandhi began his famous March to Dandi with his chosen 79 followers to break the salt laws.
• On 6 April formally launched the Civil Disobedience Movement by breaking the salt laws.

Round Table Conferences
The first Round Table Conference (1930)
• Held in November 1930 at London and it was boycotted it by the Congress.

The second Round Table Conference (1931)
• The government lifted the ban on the Congress Party and released its leaders from prison.
• On 8 March 1931 the Gandhi-Irwin Pact was signed.
• As per this pact, Mahatma Gandhi agreed to suspend the Civil-Disobedience Movement and participate in the Second Round Table Conference.

Communal Awards
• The Communal Award was announced by the British Prime Minister, Ramsay MacDonald, in August 1932.
• The Communal Award declared the depressed classes also to be minorities, and entitled them to separate electorates’.

Poona Pact (1932)
• Mahatma Gandhi protested against the Communal Award and went on a fast unto death in the Yeravada jail on 20 September 1932.
• Finally, an agreement was reached between Dr Ambedkar and Gandhi.
• This agreement came to be called as the Poona Pact.

The third Round Table Conference (1932)
• The Congress again did not take part in it.
· The Government of India Act (1935)
• Division of powers into three lists viz. Federal, Provincial and Concurrent.
• Introduction of Diarchy at the Centre
• The Governor-General and his councilors administered the “Reserved subjects”
• Abolition of Diarchy and the introduction of Provincial Autonomy in the provinces.

August offer (1940)
• August Offer’ proposed –
(i) Dominion status as the objective for India.
(ii) Expansion of viceroy’s executive council u0026amp; setting up of a constituent assembly after the war
• The Congress rejected the August Offer

Individual Satyagraha (1940-41)
• Acharya Vinoba Bhave was the first to offer Satyagraha and he was sentenced to three months imprisonment.

Cripps Mission (1942)
• British Government in its continued effort to secure Indian cooperation seent Sir Stafford Cripps to India on 23 March 1942.
• The main recommendations of Cripps were:
The promise of Dominion Status to India
Gandhi called Cripps proposals as a “Post-dated Cheque”.

Quit India Movement (1942-1944)
• The All India Congress Committee met at Bombay on 8 August 1942 and passed the famous Quit India Resolution.
• On the same day, Gandhi gave his call of ‘do or die’

C. Rajgopalachari Formula (1944)
• Rajagopalachari, the veteran Congress leader, prepared a formula for Congress-League cooperation, accepted to Gandhi.
• After the war, the entire population of Muslim majority areas in the North-West u0026amp; North-East India to decide by a plebiscite, whether or not to form a separate sovereign state.

Wavell Plan and Shimla Conference (1945)
• Aimed to reconstruct the governor general’s executive council pending the preparation of a new constitution.
• With the exception of the governor-general and the commander-in-chief, all members of the executive council were to be Indians.
• Hindus and Muslims were to have equal representation.

Indian National Army Trial (1945)
• The trial of the soldiers of INA was held at Red Fort in Delhi Cabinet Mission (1946)
• After world war-II, three members of the British Cabinet – Pathick Lawrence, Sir Stafford Cripps and A. V. Alexander – were sent to India. This is known as the Cabinet Mission.
• The Cabinet Mission also proposed the formation of a Union of India, comprising both the British Indiaand the Princely States.

Mountbatten Plan (1947)
• After extensive consultation Lord Mountbatten put forth the plan of partition of India on 3 June 1947.
• The Congress and the Muslim League ultimately approved the Mountbatten Plan. Indian Independence Act 1947
• The British Government accorded formal approval to the Mountbatten Plan by enacting the Indian Independence Act on 18 July 1947.
• The partition of the country into India and Pakistan would come into effect from 15 August 1947.
• The Radcliff Boundary Commission drew the boundary line separating India and Pakistan.