Note: This topic is important for TISSNET.
The Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment has opened 14 cross disability early intervention centres across the country to help newborns and young children who are at risk of developingdisabilities or who already have them.
- Disabilities is a broad phrase that encompasses impairments, activity constraints, and participation limitations.
- A defect with body function or structure is referred to as an impairment.
- An activity limitation is a difficulty that a person has performing a task or action.
- A participation constraint is a problem that an individual faces when participating in life circumstances.
- The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Individuals with Disabilities establishes a broad definition of persons with disabilities and states that all people with disabilities, regardless of their type, are entitled to all human rights and fundamental freedoms.
- The Convention has been ratified by India, which has adopted the ‘Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act, 2016’.
- Screening of children and referral to appropriate rehabilitative care will be provided at the centres, as well as speech therapy, occupational therapy, and physiotherapy, as well as parental counselling and training and peer counselling.
- These centres will also focus on preparing students for school.
- Scenario from 2011 Census:
- In the age bracket of 0-6 years, there are more than 20 lakh children with impairments, including those who are visually impaired, hearing impaired, or have locomotor disabilities.
- This suggests that approximately 7% of children in this age group are disabled in some way.
- Expected Rise in Number:
- As a result of the Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act 2016, which increased the number of disabilities from seven to twenty-one, the number of such children is likely to rise.
- 0-6 Years is a Critical Phase:
- The most crucial period of brain development is early childhood (0-6 years). Early intervention can help newborns and young children who are at risk of developing a disability or developmental delay, as well as their families, by providing specialised support and services to aid their development, well-being, and involvement in family and community life.
- By generating a better future and less reliant life, this can lead to a lower economic burden.
- Other Initiatives for Disabled:
- Right of Persons with Disabilities Act 2016: In addition to increasing the number of persons with impairments, it raises the percentage of people with disabilitie s who are eligible for government jobs from 3% to 4% and from 3% to 5% in higher education institutions.
- Accessible India Campaign: Making the Environment Accessible for People with Disabilities (PwDs).
- Unique Disability Identification (UDID) Portal: The project’s goal is to create a national database for people with disabilities and to give each person with a uniquedisability identity card.
- DeenDayal Disabled Rehabilitation Scheme: NGOs receive funding to provide services to PwDs such as special schools, vocational training centres, community-based rehabilitation, pre-school and early intervention, and so on.
- Assistance to Disabled Persons for Purchase / fitting of Aids and Appliances (ADIP): Aims to assist disabled people by providing them with appropriate, durable, scientifically built, modern, standard aids and equipment.
- National Fellowship for Students with Disabilities: 200 Fellowships are awarded each year to provide chances for students with disabilities to pursue higher education.
- The National Trust for the Welfare of Persons with Autism, Cerebral Palsy, Mental Retardation, and Multiple Disabilities has a number of different programmes.
Identification of risk cases, particularly in rural regions, is critical, as is the provision of vital help and counselling to their parents.
According to research, the first 1000 days of a child’s life are critical for healthy development, thus it’s critical to identify high-risk instances early on so that the severity of the handicap can be decreased by suitable interventions.