1:- Gwalior Gharana - This is the oldest among all the Khayal Gayaki (vocal) styles. The distinctive feature of this style of singing has been noted as its lucidity and simplicity.
Founders - Ustad Hassu Khan, Ustad Haddu Khan, Ustad Nathu Khan
Exponents - Bal Krishna BaIchal Karanjikar, Vishnu Digambar Paluskar, Pandit Omkarnath Thakur, Veena Sahasrabuddhe and Malini Rajurkar
2:- Agra Gharana-The Agra Gharana places great importance on developing forcefulness and deepness in the voice so that the notes are powerful and resonant.
Founders- Haji Sujan Khan, Ustad Ghagghe Khuda Baksh
Exponents-The important singers of this Gharana are Faiyyaz Khan, Latafat Hussein Khan and Dinkar Kakini.
3:- Kirana Gharana - It derives its name from the birthplace of Abdul Kharim Khan of Kirana near Kurukshetra. In the Kirana style of singing, the swara is used to create an emotional mood by means of elongation and use of Kana-s.
Founders - Abdul Karim Khan and Abdul Wahid Khan
Exponents - Hirabhai Barodekar, Begum Akhtar, Bhimsen Joshi, Gangubai Hangal and Prabha Atre.
4:- Jaipur - Atrauli Gharana- The most distinctive feature of the Jaipur Gharana can be best described as its complex and melodic form which arises out of the involutedly and undulating phrases that comprise the piece.
Founders - Ustad Alladiya Khan
Exponents - Alladiya Khan, Mallikarjun Mansur, Kesarbhai Kerkar, Kishori Amonkar, Shruti Sadolikar, Padma Talwalkar and Ashwini Bhide Deshpande.
5:- Rampur Sahaswan Gharana- The Rampur Sahaswan Gharana there is a stress on the clarity of swara in this style and the development and elaboration of the raga is done through a stepwise progression.
Founders - Ustad Inayat Khan
Exponents - Ghulam Mustafa Khan, Ustad Nissar Hussain Khan, Ustad Rashid Khan, Sulochana and Brihaspati.
6:- Patiala Gharana - Patiala Gharana is regarded as an offshoot of the Delhi Gharana. The Patiala Gharana is characterized by the use of greater rhythm play and by Layakari with the abundant use of Bols, particularly Bol-tans.
Founders - Ustad Fateh Ali Khan and Ustad Ali Baksh
Exponents - The major singers of the Patiala Gharana are Bade Ghulam Ali Khan, Ajoy Chakravarti, Raza Ali Khan, Beghum Akhtar, Nirmala Deni, Naina Devi, Parveen Sultana and others.
7:- Delhi Gharana - The Delhi Ghaana was represented by Tanras Khan and Shabbu Khan.
The highlights of Delhi Gharana are pleasing vistaar and exquisite compositions.
Founders - Ustad Mamman Khan
Exponents - Some of the notable exponents of Delhi Gharana are Chand Khan, Nasir Ahmed Khan, Usman Khan, Iqbal Ahmed Khan and Krishna Bisht.
8.Benaras Gharana - The Benaras Gharana evolved as a result of great lilting style of khayal singing known by Thumri singers of Benaras and Gaya.
Founders - Pt Gopal Mishra
Exponents - The chief exponents of the Benaras Gharana are Rajan Mishra, Sajan Mishra, Girija Devi and others.
TRADITIONAL FOLK DANCES(STATE WISE)
AndhraPradesh:VeethiNatakam, Burrakatha, Lambadi, Koya.
Arunachal Pradesh: Bardo Chham
Assam:Bagurumba, Bhortal, Jhumur, Khel, Gopal, Rakhal Lila, Tabal Chongli, Canoe, Nongkrem, Ankiya Nat, Kirtania Natak, Ojapali,Bihu
Bihar: Jadur, Kathaputli, Bhako, Jhijiya, Karma, Jatra, Natna, Bidesia, Senkela Chhau, Jat-Jatni Bidpada, Ramkhelia.
Chhattisgarh: Raut Nacha,
Goa:Fugadi, Dashavatar, Perni jagar, Musal khel, Samai nrutya, Gonph dance, Dekhni, Kunbi dance, Ghode modni, Dhalo, Tonya mel, Talgadi
Gujarat: Dandiya, Bhavai, Garba, Tippani Dance, Padhar dance, Dangi Nritya, Hudo, Matukdi, Aagwa, Siddi Dhamal
Haryana: Swang, Naqqal, Ras Leela, Dhamal dance, Manjira dance, Dhamal dance, Goga dance
Himachal Pradesh: Nati, Kariyala, Bhagat, Ras Ihanld, Harnatra Haran or Harin.
Jammu and Kashmir: Bhand Pathar or Bhand lashna, Rouff, Vetal Dhamali.
Karnataka: Yakshagana, Bedara Vesha, Dollu Kunitha, Santa, Doddata-Bayalata, Tala Maddle or Prasang. Dasarata, Radhna.,veeragase
Kerala: Duffmuttu, Oppana, Padayani, Theyam, Kodiyattam, Margam Kali, Puli Kali, Mudiattam, Thirayattam, Chavittu Nadakam, titambhu nritam, Chakyar koothu,
Madhya Pradesh: Maanch, Nacha, Phul patti, Tertali, Grida
Maharashtra: Tarfa Naach, Tamasha, Lalit Bharud, Gondha, Dashavatar, Lavani, Koli dance.
Meghalaya: Shad sukmysiem, Shad nongkrem, Derogata, Do dru Sua, Laho
Nagaland: Chang Lo (Sua Lua)
Odisha: Pala Jtra, Daskathia, Mayurbhanj Chhau, Mangal Ras, Sowang, sambalpuri (dalkhai, rasarkeli), parbha
Punjab: Naqqal, Swang Bhangra .
Rajasthan: Khyal, Rasdhari, Rammat, Turra Kilangi, Gauri, Ghoomar, Nautanki, Ihamtara.
Tamil Nadu: Therukuttu, Veethi Natakam, Bhagwat Mela Natakam, Kurvaanji, Pagal Vasham, Kavadi Chindu.
Uttar Pradesh: Bhagat, Sang-Swang, Naqqual, Mayur Nritya, Charukala
West Bengal: Chhau (Purulia), Santhali
Bala Saraswati, C. V. Chandrasekhar, Leela Samson, Mrinalini Sarabhai, Padma Subramanyam, Rukmini Devi, Sanyukta Panigrahi, Sonal Mansingh, Yamini Krishnamurti
Bharti Gupta, Birju Maharaj, Damayanti Joshi, Durga Das, Gopi Krishna, Kumudini Lakhia, Sambhu Maharaj, Sitara Devi,Shovana Narayan.
Josyula Seetharamaiah, Vempathi Chinna Sthyam
Guru Bipin Sinha, Jhaveri Sisters (Nayana Jhaveri, Ranjana Jhaveri, Suverna Jhaveri, and Darshana Jhaveri), Nirmala Mehta, Savita Mehta
Debaprasad Das, Dhirendra Nath Pattnaik, Indrani Rahman, Kelucharan Mahapatra, Priyambada Mohanty, Sonal Mansingh
Kashmir – Sufi, Ghazal, Choral music
Punjab – Bhangra (dance-oriented) Chhattisgarh – Bhartari Gayan (story of a king) West Bengal – Baul (songs of love)
Madhya Pradesh – Aalha (a heroic ballad) Rajasthan – Folk music related with specific castes. Gujrat – Dandiya (dance-oriented folk music) Maharashtra – Owi (sung during leisure time)
Goa – Suvari (sung during a wedding)
Tamil Nadu – Naatupura Paatu.
Bihar – Sohar (performed during childbirth).
Assam – Zikir (teaching of Islam).
Arunachal Pradesh – Ja-Jin-Ja (sung during marriages).
Manipur – Khongjom Parva (musical narration of the battle of Khongjom).
MUSIC INTRUMENTS PLAYERS
Pt Shiv Kumar sharma, Bhajan Sopori
Hari Prasad Chaurasia, Pannalal Ghosh
Zakir Hussain, Allah Rakha, Sabir khan, Pt. Kishan Maharaj, Pt Jnan Prakash Ghosh, Sandeep Das
Allauddin Khan, Ali Akbar Khan, Amjad Ali Khan, Buddhadev Das Gupta
Bismillah Khan, Krishna Ram Chaudhari, Ali Ahmad Hussain
Pt. Ravi Shankar, Shahid Prvez Khan, Budhaditya Mukharjee, Anushka Shankar
Shakoor Khan, Pt. Ram Narayan, Ramesh Mishra, Sultan Khan
Zia Mohiuddin Dagar, Ayyagari Syamasundaram, Doraiswamy Iyengar
Asad Ali Khan
Pt. Vishwa Mohan Bhat (inventor of Mohan Veena)
M.S. Gopalakrishnan, Smt M. Rajam, N.R. Muralidharan, M. Chandrasekharan, V.G. Jog, Lalgudi Jayaraman
Shubha Mudgal, Bheemsen Joshi, Madhup Mudgal, Mukul Shivputra, Pandit Jasraj, Parveen Sultana, Naina Devi, Girija Devi, Ustad Ghulam Mustafa Khan, Gangubai Hangal, Krishna Hangal, V. Rajput, Kumar Gandharva, Faiyyaz Khan, Mallikarjun Mansur, Kishori Amonkar, Ustad Rashid Khan.
M. S. Subbalakshmi, Balamuralikrishna, Bombay Jaishree, H. K. Raghavendra,
H. K. Venkataram, Sitarajam, Mani Krishnaswamy, Akhil Krishnan, M. L. Vasanthakumari, M. D. Ramanathan, G. N. Balasubramaniam
Ustad Bade Ghulam Ali Khan, Ustad Mazhar Ali Khan, Ustad Zawad Ali Khan, Rita Ganguli, Poornima Chaudhary, Shanti Heerananda, Naina Devi
Ghulam Hasan Niyazi, Sultan Niyazi, Ghulam Farid Nizami, Chand Nizami, Iqbal Hussain Khan Bandanawaji, Aslam Sabari
Ustad Rahim Fahimuddin Dagar, Zahiruddin Dagar, Waslfuddin Dagar, Bundecha Bandhu, Uday Bhawalkar, Pt.
LUCKNOW GHARANA- Lucknow Gharana came into existence during the reign of Nawab Wajid Ali Shah in 19th century.
STYLE: Graceful movements and natural poise.
Notable personality : Birju Maharaj.
JAIPUR GHARANA- Jaipur Gharana fluorished during the tenure of Kachchwaha kings of Jaipur.
STYLE: The technical aspects of dance, such as footwork and spins are emphasised upon.
Notable personality: Rajendra Gangani
BANARAS GHARANA- This Gharana was started by a person called Janaki Prasad.
STYLE: Banaras gharana is known for its Natawari compositions, where rhythmic syllables correspond to the sound created by the feet striking the ground.
Notable personality: Sunayana Hazarilal
RAIGARH GHARANA- This was established by the Maharaja Chakradhar Singh in the princely state of Raigarh(Chhatisgarh). The king was fond of inviting dance luminaries of different Gharanas to his court. Over a period of time, Raigarh developed its own unique style amalgamating the styles of all the older three Gharanas.
Notable personalities: Kartik Ram and Kalyan Das.
While the LUCKNOW and JAIPUR Gharanas were influenced during Mughal times, BANARAS Gharana largely remained untouched from it.