Current affairs
Static GK
TISSMAT
TISSNET MOCKS
TISSMAT MOCKS

Art and Culture

MUSIC GHARANAS

 

1:- Gwalior Gharana​​ -​​ This is the oldest among all the Khayal Gayaki (vocal) styles.​​ The distinctive feature of this style of singing has been noted as its lucidity and simplicity.

Founders​​ -​​ Ustad Hassu Khan, Ustad Haddu Khan,​​ Ustad Nathu Khan

Exponents​​ -​​ Bal Krishna BaIchal Karanjikar,​​ Vishnu Digambar Paluskar, Pandit​​ Omkarnath Thakur, Veena Sahasrabuddhe and Malini Rajurkar

 

 

2:- Agra Gharana-The Agra Gharana places great importance on developing​​ forcefulness and​​ deepness in the voice so that the notes are powerful and resonant.

Founders-​​ Haji Sujan Khan, Ustad Ghagghe Khuda Baksh

Exponents-The important singers of this Gharana are​​ Faiyyaz Khan, Latafat​​ Hussein Khan and Dinkar Kakini.

 

3:- Kirana​​ Gharana​​ -​​ It derives its name from the birthplace of Abdul Kharim Khan​​ of Kirana near Kurukshetra. In the Kirana style of singing, the swara is used to create an emotional mood by means of elongation and use of Kana-s.

Founders​​ -​​ Abdul Karim Khan and​​ Abdul​​ Wahid Khan

Exponents​​ -​​ Hirabhai Barodekar, Begum Akhtar,​​ Bhimsen Joshi, Gangubai Hangal​​ and Prabha Atre.

 

 

4:- Jaipur​​ -​​ Atrauli Gharana- The most distinctive feature of the Jaipur Gharana​​ can be best described as its complex and melodic form​​ which arises out of the involutedly and undulating phrases that comprise the piece.

Founders​​ -​​ Ustad Alladiya Khan

Exponents​​ -​​ Alladiya Khan, Mallikarjun Mansur, Kesarbhai Kerkar, Kishori Amonkar,​​ Shruti Sadolikar, Padma Talwalkar and Ashwini Bhide​​ Deshpande.

 

 

5:- Rampur Sahaswan Gharana-​​ The Rampur Sahaswan Gharana there is a stress on​​ the clarity of swara in this style and the development and elaboration of the raga is done through a stepwise progression.

Founders​​ -​​ Ustad Inayat Khan

Exponents​​ -​​ Ghulam Mustafa Khan,​​ Ustad Nissar Hussain Khan, Ustad Rashid Khan,​​ Sulochana and Brihaspati.

 

6:- Patiala Gharana​​ -​​ Patiala Gharana is regarded as an offshoot of the Delhi Gharana.​​ The Patiala Gharana is​​ characterized by the use of greater rhythm play and by Layakari with the abundant use of Bols, particularly Bol-tans.

Founders​​ -​​ Ustad Fateh Ali Khan and Ustad Ali Baksh

Exponents​​ -​​ The major singers of the Patiala Gharana are Bade Ghulam Ali Khan, Ajoy​​ Chakravarti, Raza Ali Khan, Beghum Akhtar, Nirmala Deni, Naina Devi, Parveen Sultana and others.

 

7:- Delhi Gharana​​ -​​ The Delhi Ghaana was represented by Tanras Khan and Shabbu Khan.

The highlights of Delhi Gharana are pleasing vistaar and​​ exquisite compositions.

Founders​​ -​​ Ustad Mamman Khan

Exponents​​ -​​ Some of the notable exponents of Delhi Gharana are Chand Khan, Nasir Ahmed​​ Khan, Usman Khan, Iqbal Ahmed Khan and Krishna Bisht.

 

8.Benaras Gharana​​ -​​ The Benaras Gharana evolved as a​​ result of great lilting style of​​ khayal​​ singing known by Thumri singers​​ of Benaras and Gaya.

Founders​​ -​​ Pt Gopal Mishra

Exponents​​ -​​ The chief exponents of the Benaras Gharana are Rajan Mishra, Sajan Mishra,​​ Girija Devi and others.

 

TRADITIONAL FOLK DANCES(STATE WISE)

 

 

AndhraPradesh:VeethiNatakam, Burrakatha, Lambadi, Koya.

 

Arunachal Pradesh:​​ Bardo Chham

 

Assam:Bagurumba,​​ Bhortal, Jhumur, Khel, Gopal, Rakhal Lila, Tabal Chongli,​​ Canoe,​​ Nongkrem,​​ Ankiya Nat, Kirtania Natak, Ojapali,Bihu

 

Bihar:​​ Jadur, Kathaputli, Bhako, Jhijiya, Karma, Jatra, Natna, Bidesia, Senkela​​ Chhau,​​ Jat-Jatni Bidpada, Ramkhelia.

 

Chhattisgarh:​​ Raut Nacha,

 

Goa:Fugadi,​​ Dashavatar, Perni jagar, Musal khel, Samai​​ nrutya, Gonph dance,​​ Dekhni,​​ Kunbi dance, Ghode modni,​​ Dhalo,​​ Tonya mel, Talgadi

Gujarat:​​ Dandiya,​​ Bhavai, Garba,​​ Tippani​​ Dance, Padhar dance, Dangi Nritya,​​ Hudo, Matukdi, Aagwa,​​ Siddi Dhamal

 

Haryana:​​ Swang, Naqqal,​​ Ras Leela,​​ Dhamal dance,​​ Manjira dance, Dhamal​​ dance, Goga dance

 

Himachal Pradesh:​​ Nati,​​ Kariyala, Bhagat, Ras Ihanld, Harnatra Haran or Harin.

 

Jammu and Kashmir:​​ Bhand Pathar or Bhand lashna,​​ Rouff,​​ Vetal Dhamali.

 

Karnataka:​​ Yakshagana,​​ Bedara Vesha, Dollu Kunitha,​​ Santa, Doddata-Bayalata,​​ Tala Maddle or Prasang. Dasarata, Radhna.,veeragase

 

Kerala:​​ Duffmuttu, Oppana,​​ Padayani, Theyam, Kodiyattam,​​ Margam Kali, Puli​​ Kali,​​ Mudiattam, Thirayattam,​​ Chavittu Nadakam, titambhu nritam, Chakyar koothu,

 

Madhya Pradesh:​​ Maanch, Nacha, Phul patti,​​ Tertali,​​ Grida

 

Maharashtra:​​ Tarfa Naach,​​ Tamasha,​​ Lalit Bharud, Gondha, Dashavatar, Lavani,​​ Koli dance.

 

Meghalaya:​​ Shad sukmysiem, Shad​​ nongkrem,​​ Derogata, Do dru Sua, Laho

Nagaland: ​​​​ Chang Lo (Sua Lua)

 

Odisha:​​ Pala Jtra,​​ Daskathia,​​ Mayurbhanj​​ Chhau, Mangal Ras, Sowang,​​ sambalpuri (dalkhai, rasarkeli), parbha

 

Punjab:​​ Naqqal, Swang​​ Bhangra​​ .

 

Rajasthan:​​ Khyal,​​ Rasdhari, Rammat, Turra Kilangi, Gauri,​​ Ghoomar, Nautanki,​​ Ihamtara.

 

Tamil Nadu:​​ Therukuttu,​​ Veethi​​ Natakam, Bhagwat Mela Natakam, Kurvaanji,​​ Pagal Vasham, Kavadi Chindu.

 

Telangana:​​ Bathukamma

 

Uttar Pradesh:​​ Bhagat, Sang-Swang, Naqqual, Mayur Nritya, Charukala

 

Uttrakhand:​​ Chholiya

 

West Bengal:​​ Chhau (Purulia),​​ Santhali

 

 

Famous Dancer

 

Bharatnatyam

Bala Saraswati, C. V. Chandrasekhar, Leela Samson,​​ Mrinalini Sarabhai,​​ Padma Subramanyam, Rukmini Devi,​​ Sanyukta Panigrahi, Sonal Mansingh,​​ Yamini Krishnamurti

Kathak

Bharti Gupta,​​ Birju Maharaj, Damayanti Joshi, Durga Das, Gopi Krishna,​​ Kumudini Lakhia, Sambhu Maharaj,​​ Sitara Devi,Shovana Narayan.

Kuchipudi

Josyula Seetharamaiah, Vempathi Chinna Sthyam

Manipuri

Guru Bipin Sinha,​​ Jhaveri Sisters​​ (Nayana Jhaveri, Ranjana Jhaveri,​​ Suverna Jhaveri, and Darshana​​ Jhaveri),​​ Nirmala Mehta, Savita Mehta

Odissi Dancer

Debaprasad Das,​​ Dhirendra Nath​​ Pattnaik, Indrani Rahman, Kelucharan Mahapatra, Priyambada Mohanty,​​ Sonal​​ Mansingh

 

FOLK SONG

 

Kashmir​​ – Sufi,​​ Ghazal, Choral music

Punjab​​ – Bhangra (dance-oriented)​​ Chhattisgarh​​ – Bhartari Gayan (story of a king)​​ West Bengal​​ – Baul​​ (songs of love)

Madhya Pradesh​​ – Aalha (a heroic ballad)​​ Rajasthan​​ – Folk music related with specific castes.​​ Gujrat​​ – Dandiya (dance-oriented folk music)​​ Maharashtra​​ ​​ Owi​​ (sung during leisure time)

Goa​​ –​​ Suvari​​ (sung during a wedding)

Tamil Nadu​​ – Naatupura Paatu.

Bihar​​ – Sohar (performed during childbirth).

Assam​​ –​​ Zikir​​ (teaching of Islam).

Arunachal Pradesh​​ ​​ Ja-Jin-Ja​​ (sung during marriages).

Manipur​​ –​​ Khongjom Parva​​ (musical narration of the battle of Khongjom).

 

 

MUSIC INTRUMENTS PLAYERS

 

 

MUSICAL INSTRUMENT

PERSON

SANTOOR

Pt​​ Shiv Kumar sharma, Bhajan Sopori

FLUTE

Hari Prasad Chaurasia, Pannalal Ghosh

TABLA

Zakir Hussain, Allah Rakha, Sabir khan, Pt. Kishan Maharaj, Pt Jnan Prakash Ghosh, Sandeep Das

SAROD

Allauddin Khan, Ali Akbar Khan,​​ Amjad Ali Khan,​​ Buddhadev Das Gupta

SHEHNAI

Bismillah Khan, Krishna Ram Chaudhari, Ali Ahmad Hussain

SITAR

Pt. Ravi Shankar, Shahid Prvez Khan, Budhaditya Mukharjee, Anushka Shankar

SAARANGI

Shakoor Khan, Pt. Ram Narayan, Ramesh Mishra, Sultan Khan

VEENA

Zia Mohiuddin Dagar,​​ Ayyagari Syamasundaram,​​ Doraiswamy Iyengar

RUDRA VEENA

Asad Ali Khan

MOHAN VEENA

Pt. Vishwa Mohan Bhat​​ (inventor of Mohan Veena)

VIOLIN

M.S. Gopalakrishnan, Smt M. Rajam, N.R. Muralidharan, M. Chandrasekharan, V.G. Jog, Lalgudi Jayaraman

 

 

 

Hindustani Vocalists

Shubha Mudgal, Bheemsen Joshi,​​ Madhup Mudgal, Mukul Shivputra,​​ Pandit Jasraj, Parveen Sultana, Naina Devi, Girija Devi,​​ Ustad Ghulam Mustafa​​ Khan, Gangubai Hangal, Krishna Hangal, V. Rajput, Kumar Gandharva, Faiyyaz Khan, Mallikarjun Mansur, Kishori Amonkar, Ustad Rashid Khan.

Carnatic Vocalists

M. S. Subbalakshmi,​​ Balamuralikrishna, Bombay Jaishree, H. K. Raghavendra,

H. K. Venkataram, Sitarajam, Mani Krishnaswamy, Akhil Krishnan, M. L. Vasanthakumari, M. D. Ramanathan, G. N. Balasubramaniam

Thumri

Ustad Bade Ghulam Ali Khan, Ustad Mazhar Ali Khan, Ustad Zawad Ali Khan, Rita Ganguli, Poornima Chaudhary,​​ Shanti Heerananda, Naina Devi

Quwwali

Ghulam Hasan Niyazi, Sultan Niyazi,​​ Ghulam Farid Nizami, Chand Nizami, Iqbal Hussain Khan Bandanawaji,​​ Aslam​​ Sabari

Dhrupad

Ustad Rahim Fahimuddin Dagar,​​ Zahiruddin Dagar, Waslfuddin Dagar, Bundecha Bandhu,​​ Uday Bhawalkar, Pt.

KATHAK GHARANAS

 

LUCKNOW GHARANA-​​ Lucknow Gharana came into existence during the reign​​ of Nawab Wajid Ali Shah in 19th century.

STYLE:​​ Graceful movements and natural poise.

Notable personality :​​ Birju​​ Maharaj.

 

 

JAIPUR GHARANA-​​ Jaipur Gharana fluorished during the tenure of Kachchwaha​​ kings of Jaipur.

STYLE:​​ The technical aspects of dance, such as footwork and spins are​​ emphasised upon.

Notable personality:​​ Rajendra Gangani

 

 

BANARAS GHARANA-​​ This Gharana was started by a person called​​ Janaki​​ Prasad.

STYLE:​​ Banaras gharana is known for its Natawari compositions, where rhythmic​​ syllables correspond to the sound created by the feet striking the ground.

Notable personality:​​ Sunayana Hazarilal

 

 

RAIGARH GHARANA-​​ This was established by the​​ Maharaja Chakradhar​​ Singh in the princely state of Raigarh(Chhatisgarh). The king was fond of inviting dance luminaries of different Gharanas to his court. Over a period of time, Raigarh developed its own unique style amalgamating the styles of all the older three Gharanas.

Notable personalities:​​ Kartik Ram and Kalyan Das.

While the​​ LUCKNOW​​ and​​ JAIPUR​​ Gharanas were influenced during Mughal times,​​ BANARAS​​ Gharana largely remained​​ untouched from it.